With the recent news around the abolishing of the Minneapolis police department, I wonder what the alternatives are and how they work? Is there any example anywhere on earth currently? I didn't find much useful information surfing the web.

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    Do you mean, in current-day society, or, say, in conceptions of Anarchist society which lack police as such, as a basic feature? – einpoklum Jun 9 at 13:40
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    I meant in the contemporary societies where there are laws and governments. – Reza Jun 9 at 22:27

For a recent example of disbanding a police force, see the RUC of Northern Ireland. In practice, many former RUC officers continue to serve in the PSNI, but there were leadership, policy and structural changes to go with the renaming.

Prior to the establishment of professional police, the capture of criminals was a community matter. Local governments (in the feudal sense) could hire constables. Any person who witnesses a crime (be they constable or private citizen) could raise a "hue and cry" and those hearing the hue and cry were obliged to pursue the suspect. Justice was often arbitrary and the failure of this system to cope with 19th-century cities led to Robert Peel's introduction of a professional police force for London (and ultimately all of the UK)

In many countries without a fully functioning civilian government, police work is done by the military, or by paramilitary groups. Policing in Syria is done by the army or by the military group which controls a particular part of the land.

Rather more successfully, the Spanish Civil Guard is a division of the Army that polices the Spanish countryside, while the CNP is the civilian police, which polices the cities. A gendarmerie is quite common across continental Europe. Conversely looking at Northern Ireland during the troubles, the IRA policed parts of the community, sometimes with extreme violence and, of course, often arbitrarily and without oversight. The New York Mafia and other gangs have been somewhat similar.

As you see from these examples, having military or non-professional community constables is not a guarantee against brutality.

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