The Gadsden flag is not always a political statement, but it almost always is. It wasn't until the ~2010s that it became associated with the Tea Party movement. As wiki notes
Starting in the 1970s, the Gadsden Flag became strongly associated with libertarianism. In the 2010s it also became associated with the American Tea Party movement. Because of these multiple uses, the meaning of the Gadsden Flag is ambiguous and depends on the context.
It's popularity or visibility has subsided some since the early 2010's, but it is still commonly associated with right/libertarian causes.
It is currently used in the banner image for the largest right wing subreddit on reddit:
I want to offer a counter answer to above for what the flag represents and why it is popular among right leaning groups. (edit: at the time this answer was written, there was only one other answer which is now the lowest rated answer. The following points were written as a response to that.)
It represents a willingness to re-interpret the Second Amendment, not only the right to bear arms, but also justify modern militias. Nominally this is in opposition to government overreach, but the Gadsden flag is conspicuously absent from protests against Native people's genocide or state sanctioned police violence. This doesn't mean the flag is a symbol of oppression, simply that right wing "government overreach" crowd doesn't align politically with anti-oppression movement. (But the symbol itself does have meaning in itself, separate from political movements. See the evolution into the "Don't Kneel on Us" referencing the Black Panther Party -- though this hasn't seen widespread adoption).
It represents a willingness to defend First Amendment and freedom of speech in general, as long as that speech favors right-wing politics. (Where are the Gadsden/1A folks defending Bolton's book, or protesting the police violence inflicted upon press (as people protest police violence)? )
As referenced in other answers, there is some overlap between the political groups that reference the "history" or "heritage" of the Gadsden flag, and what that represents, and other "heritage, not hate" symbols. Nominally, this is in support of the ideal "all men are created equal," but ... Nominally, this is in support of "limited government" in general, but the political groups that associate with the flag are generally missing from left/liberal causes. For instance, missing from protests that convict you of a felony if you protest an oil pipeline on your own land. Or missing from protests about the $25,000 fine a city must pay to remove a confederate statue in Alabama. But just because the flag is missing, doesn't mean the idea the flag represents is exactly opposed.
To summarize: The flag represents a libertarian worldview which is frequently used in support of right wing government, even though some of the underlying libertarian philosophies are shared by those on the left. The context matters, but the flag is usually a symbol showing favoribility towards right leaning views, and this continues to be true at the present time.