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Where to find a summary with dates of FONOPS (especially in the South China Sea) conducted by the United States in 2020 and ideally in recent years?

Some information on previous years is contained in Wikipedia, but it is neither clear how complete it is, nor whether it is confirmed by the US.

The Annual Freedom of Navigation Reports to Congress (example for 2019) state how many “excessive claims” they have challenged (22 in 2019), but that refers to separate claims by various countries. Typically, a claim is challenged multiple times and dates and numbers on this are not furnished in the above!

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According to the U.S. Naval Institute News article titled SECDEF Esper: U.S. Will ‘Keep Up the Pace’ of South China Sea Freedom of Navigation Operations, dated July 21, 2020, six freedom of navigation operations have been conducted so far in 2020. It also points out that in CY 2019 nine were conducted, an all-time high.

The article contains further details I think will address the remainder of your question..

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