No electoral result happens in a vacuum -- and worldwide analogs to current events can provide interesting insights on what may happen with upcoming global national elections in an era when the democratic process is facing robust threats.

With that in mind, are there any good longitudinal studies of global, historical contested elections at the national level? Something that combines info from Latin America, North America, Africa, Asia, and Europe to provide a holistic understanding of the key factors that can lead to recovery (e.g., Bush v. Gore) or collapse (e.g., Venezuela) following a national election in which two or more major candidates refuse to concede. Of particular interest are countries where geographic stratification is not a major contributing factor (i.e., unlike the USA in 1860).

It seems clear that the best way to prepare for the future is to learn from the past, and there are likely to be many factors that can be distilled from past analogs to our current democratic trajectory that we can draw from history, perhaps in time to shore ourselves up for what may come.

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