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I think that it's pretty clear at this point that, despite having diplomatic relations and trade with America for the last 50 years, Communist China is still a repressive dictatorship; if the plan was for trade and communication to result in their liberalization, it has utterly failed.

  1. As a result, could the US President decide that Nixon was wrong to acknowledge the Chinese Communist Party as the legitimate government of China, and break off relations with them while formally acknowledging the Republic of China (Taiwan) as the legitimate Chinese government, in an attempt at forcing the CCP to renounce power and begin the process of holding democratic elections to determine the new government of China?

  2. Can the US President issue an Executive Order declaring their ambassadors to the UN as Persona Non Grata (PNG), thereby forcing them off of the UN, since it's hosted in America, while encouraging the Republic of China to send ambassadors to replace them, banning all trade and travel to mainland China by US citizens, ships, or aircraft, or even deploying the US Navy to institute a blockade of mainland China to prevent any other nation from sending ships or aircraft there for trade (and shooting down or sinking any aircraft or ships that try to run the blockade)?

  3. Would he need the support of Congress to do any of these things? I know that only Congress can declare wars, for instance.

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    Before you comment or answer, please note that this question asks if the president could do these things. Whether or not it would be a good idea or accomplish anything of value for the American or Chinese people is a question for a more debate-oriented website. – Philipp Sep 25 '20 at 9:13
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    You might consider that the US doesn't seem to have a problem having relations with "repressive dictatorships", it was the communist part that was the problem. Since it is fairly obvious that China is no longer communist in practice (even though they keep the party name for face-saving reasons), the argument seems to fall on its face. – jamesqf Sep 26 '20 at 4:21
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Could the US President decide that Nixon was wrong to acknowledge the Chinese Communist Party as the legitimate government of China,

Yes, the President can decide anything

and break off relations with them

Yes, the diplomat corp of the USA must obey commands from the President. The president can order the withdrawl of diplomats.

while formally acknowledging the Republic of China (Taiwan) as the legitimate Chinese government,

Yes, again international relations are the province of Executive power. Congress can pass a law that over-rules the President, and with a supermajority, Congress can overrule a presidential veto.

in an attempt at forcing the CCP to renounce power and begin the process of holding democratic elections to determine the new government of China?

The President does not need to give (or have) a reason. This could be the thought process of the president (whether or not it is misguided)

Can the US President issue an Executive Order declaring their ambassadors to the UN as Persona Non Grata (PNG), thereby forcing them off of the UN, since it's hosted in America, while encouraging the Republic of China to send ambassadors to replace them,

The president can remove the PRC ambassadors to the USA. Under an agreement with the UN (agreement establishing a headquarters) the UN is inviolable and its headquarters is self-governing. It would be be a breach of protocol to prevent a member nation from attending. The UN recognition is of the PRC is not in the gift of the USA. At least the other 3 permanent members must agree.

Banning all trade and travel to mainland China by US citizens, ships, or aircraft, or even deploying the US Navy to institute a blockade of mainland China to prevent any other nation from sending ships or aircraft there for trade (and shooting down or sinking any aircraft or ships that try to run the blockade)?

The President can make it difficult. But he can't create law. So he can use powers voted by congress to him to regulate trade. But he can't make it illegal for a US citizen to visit mainland China. That would require a change in the law, and only Congress can change the law. He can make it very difficult for people to visit China

Aggressive acts of war (such as a blockade or shooting down aircraft) can be ordered by the president. They would, of course, be illegal under international law, and likely provoke a military response from the PRC. It is unlikely that the US military has sufficient strength to enforce a blockade of China.

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    I'd suggest that saying "the President can decide anything" in the early part of this answer may overstate Presidential power. Perhaps it could be phrased better. – Burt_Harris Sep 25 '20 at 23:20
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    @Burt_Harris: Well, a President can decide anything. Legally implementing their decisions is another matter. See e.g. current news. – jamesqf Sep 26 '20 at 16:58
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    @jamesqf: As written, this can be interpreted to mean that the Office of the President grants the power to decide anything, rather than the human right to choose to say something they decided something untrue. Specifically the verb decide implies a resolution to something. – Burt_Harris Sep 26 '20 at 17:34
  • @Burt_Harris The president has freedom of thought. I can decide anything too. This is not a "power". The ability to do is a power (and there are some powers given to the President in the Constitution) But the ability to decide is a fundamental consequence of the human condition. – James K Sep 26 '20 at 17:38
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    The question is pretty clearly asking about powers, not freedoms. It is a separation of powers question. – Burt_Harris Sep 26 '20 at 17:51

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