The politics and economics of the Soviet Union caused large numbers of people to be transplanted from one region to another, for example:
- The Crimean Tatars were deported to Central Asia;
- Ethnic Russians were encouraged to settle in Estonia;
- Dissidents of all stripes were exiled to Siberia.
When the Soviet Union collapsed, on what basis, then, was citizenship granted or withheld for each of the fifteen new republics?
My reading suggests that all of the post-Soviet states grant citizenship primarily on the basis of blood, and not birthplace. That's all well and good, but, for example, there was no independent Kyrgyz state before 1991. Logically, one cannot grant citizenship on the basis of blood, without an existing stock of citizenry from which to start. One could, of course, in the case of Kyrgyzstan, start off by granting citizenship on the basis of ethnicity, but ethnicity is always difficult to nail down precisely. Do you get citizenship on the basis of a Kyrgyz-sounding surname?
I'm especially interested in the case of persons of Russian descent with a connection to Central Asia. What boxes would such a person need to check in order to be granted citizenship of one of the Central Asian republics?