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This question is about the electoral college.

From what I understand, the way the electoral college works is that each party appoints electors for their party, based on state-specific rules that prohibit members of congress from being appointed. Then, based on which candidate receives more votes on election day in a given state, the corresponding party's electors for that state are allowed to cast their votes, which are expected to align with the party they were appointed by.

So, with that said, how does it work with regard to independent candidates, registered write-in candidates, and third parties? Does the Libertarian Party, Green Party, etc. also name electors for every state in which their candidate is on the ballot? If a registered write-in candidate like Roseanne Barr were to win a state, does she also have a slate of appointed electors ready to cast their electoral votes in that state?

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Does the Libertarian Party, Green Party, etc. also name electors for every state in which their candidate is on the ballot?

In most states, yes. Part of the process of qualifying to get on the ballot in most states is submitting a list of electoral college candidates.

If a registered write-in candidate like Roseanne Barr were to win a state, does she also have a slate of appointed electors ready to cast their electoral votes in that state?

I most states, no. Parties submit their lists of electoral college candidates well before the election. A vote for a write-in candidate who is not on the ballot is essentially a vote to have state's legislative branch decide the election, or the state's governor to decide the election, if the legislative branch has relinquished their authority, or the US Congress if a state's laws preclude the legislature or governor from overriding the vote in that state.

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