If a few members of the House of Representatives who opposed impeachment were to attempt to filibuster the impeachment, could they or are there any internal house rules that would prevent this?
There is no filibuster in the House of Representatives; it is only part of the Senate rules. Furthermore, a majority of the House can vote to end the debate anytime and proceed onto the impeachment vote.
From this CRS report, page 12:
A question of the privileges of the House is considered under the hour rule. Often, the House votes to dispose of such resolutions by referring them to committee or by tabling them. The House could also order the previous question to end debate on the resolution and then vote directly on it. However, the House has never impeached an officer without a committee investigation.
The CRS report (page 12) also offers more details on the process where the resolution containing the article of impeachment was offered directly on the floor (as opposed to the regular House procedure where there would be committee hearings).
A House impeachment resolution would move to the floor and could get a vote quickly, because there would be no hearings to present evidence. The Judiciary Committee has not yet been constituted for the 117th Congress, so an impeachment resolution would go directly to the floor under what's known as a "privileged resolution." A simple majority of members in the House is required for impeachment, so it seems likely to pass.