The Trump administration's (TA) use of the lame-duck period, as far as I can tell, is completely unprecedented in US politics. Other presidents have acted in ways that were arguably quite harmful to the country, but it was by doing nothing. The key examples would be the Herbert Hoover (doing nothing as the economy crashed) and James Buchanan (doing nothing as states seceded from the union). Another answer mentioned Obama not blocking a UN resolution. I would argue that these are all passive things. Obama wasn't forcing a vote to create problems for the new admin, or even voting at all. Other countries brought it up for a vote and the US did not actively block it. [Also that Netanyahu has no room at all to complain given that he basically publicly allied his party to the republicans during the election].
Trump, on the other hand, engaged in numerous proactive actions, many of which were designed to hobble the incoming Biden Admin. Federal executions have traditionally been halted during this time, the TA sped them up. But focusing on the OP's topic of diplomacy, there really isn't anything any modern US president has done that is even in the same universe as the last minute actions of the TA.
Besides the Uighur issue, there was also a huge reversal of policy with how we recognize the government of Taiwan. That is a far more sensitive to the Chinese government and can potentially cause huge issues. They also put Cuba back on the state sponsor of terror list. Usually this is a year long review process, but of course the TA did it without any review of all. One would assume because that was because there is no significant evidence at all that Cuba is guilty of things that would place them on such a list. And of course there was also actions taken towards Iran that were designed to make renegotiation with them much more difficult. And this is by no means an exhaustive list, one could go on for pages about last minute things designed to cripple the Biden Administration out the gate.
The TLDR is that while other presidents may have made their predecessors life more difficult than it needed to be, there is no comparison between what the Trump Administration did and any other modern US president, or perhaps any president in US history.