In some countries there is a big fear among voters of voting for a party that doesn't end up in the parliament because they didn't reach the minimum threshold of votes, making their votes go in vain. So voters are motivated to vote according to the preliminary polls and expected results, which puts smaller and new parties in a disadvantage and puts too much power in the hands of public media to shape the results and select the votable parties.
I came up with a system where everyone has two votes. One for their most favorite party (golden vote) and one for their second-most favorite party (silver vote). Only one of the votes gets counted. If the party with the golden votes gets into the parliament, then the golden vote of the voter gets counted. If it doesn't then the silver vote of the voter gets counted. And only when even the second party doesn't get into the parliament the vote goes in vain.
So people vote what they really want with the golden vote and at the same time can express who they want to support in case their top party doesn't make it.
According to my communication with a local politician this system supposedly exists somewhere in the world but she wasn't able to name a particular country.
So the main question is: does this system exist anywhere in the world and where?
EDIT: The question is about voting for parties, not for individuals. So the outcome is 100% distributed among the parties. Determining the number of chairs based on the percentages or determining people who get them is outside the scope of this question.
EDIT 2: The sole use case of the silver vote is when the party with the golden vote doesn't reach the electoral threshold. It's not for transferring the votes to someone else in case the golden party somehow has "enough", that would make no sense. No party can have "surplus" votes, getting more votes is always for better.