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the above Wikipedia link says that:

(...) most Muslim scholars are of the opinion that Islamic al-Shura should consist of the following:

  • Meeting or consultation that follows the teachings of Islam.
  • Consultation following the guidelines of the Quran and the Sunnah.
  • There is a leader elected among them to head the meeting.
  • The discussion should be based on mushawarah and mudhakarah.
  • All members are given fair opportunity to voice out their opinions.
  • The issue should be of maslahah ammah or public interest.
  • The voices of the majority are accepted, provided it does not violate the teachings of the Quran or Sunnah.

Is this the same as Caliphate? Is "Caliphate" as same as the "Islamic government" or are they different?

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Technically speaking, a Caliphate is a political system under a caliph: a proper successor to the prophet Muhammed. Not every islamic government would consider its leader a successor to Muhammed — e.g., neither Saudi Arabia nor Iran call their leaders caliph — so in that sense a Caliphate is a particular form of Islamic government.

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