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Regarding United States government, I am under the impression that the president of the Senate is (only?) used as a tie breaker in the event of a tie during a vote, but can they introduce bills like other senators?

Is their political capability(s) hindered in any other ways?

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The Vice President of the United States, while the President of the Senate, is not a Senator and therefore not a "Member of the Senate." Only members of the Senate may introduce bills for deliberation by the Senate.

Practically speaking, however, the Vice President will have absolutely no trouble finding a willing member of their political party to sponsor whatever they need.

The Vice-President's service as President of the Senate is, in fact, for the express purpose of ensuring that a sitting Senator need not be called to the role - and thereby denied a vote in most matters.

From the website of the Senate itself:

Vice presidents cannot vote in the Senate, except to break a tie, nor may they formally address the Senate, except with the senators' permission. Initially vice presidents appointed senators to standing committees, regulated access to the galleries and supervised the keeping of the Senate Journal, but these duties were later removed.

It's important to note that they may not even address the body without being given explicit permission to do so.

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    What text in the linked article supports the assertion "The Vice-President's service as President of the Senate is, in fact, for the express purpose of ensuring that a sitting Senator need not be called to the role - and thereby denied a vote in most matters"? I don't see anything saying that it is for that purpose, nor do I see anything suggesting that a senator serving as president would be denied the right to vote.
    – phoog
    Jun 4 at 1:49
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    @phoog Woops, wrong link. Fixing! Now properly linked, relevant text: " A member of the Committee of Eleven that originated the new office, Sherman defended it as follows: "If the vice-President were not to be President of the Senate, he would be without employment." Sherman added that if the Senate elected its own President to preside over the chamber, that Senator's state would be deprived of a vote except when it came to breaking ties (since it was customary for presiding officers to remain neutral in all other instances)." Jun 4 at 13:55

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