In my history class, we learned that pre Roosevelt, Republicans were more or less the more liberal party and Democrats the conservative party. Today such an idea seems hard to imagine in today's political climate. (I looked it up, and I saw that it wasn't so simple, but I think it was my teacher wanting to say something without taking too much time.)
I looked at the data, and I saw that pre-1936, most Black voters supported Republicans (who were able to vote at all), which runs squarely opposite to today's environment, at least on the surface. And, I saw that politics wasn't as ideologically aligned as it has been for the past couple of decades.
I am not going to go into more details because I don't want to be wrong. I want a detailed answer about how Roosevelt changed the climate of the USA politically because FDR seems to be a flashpoint. I say so because the New Deal was the first time the Democratic Party took a major progressive stance to my knowledge.