One criticism of the modern day regulatory state is that politicians and various senior government officials promulgating new policies have no "skin in the game"; that is, they have little to no personal liability in the results of their decisions. For example, a politician supporting a "bridge to nowhere" would not suffer any personal consequences if that bridge fails to have enough users - i.e. they wouldn't be forced to pay a fine. On the opposite side of the coin, a politician supporting the construction of a new spaceport would not see any direct financial benefits if the project is immensely successful - i.e. they won't see any dividends from commercial use of said spaceport.
Are there countries that attempt to tackle this problem by introducing some sort of "skin in the game" incentives? I'm aware that Singapore tried to encourage better governance by paying performance bonuses to top politicians but they're still guaranteed 70% of their salary every month no matter what.
Update as requested. Since it seems like "personal investment" is a vague concept, here's couple more examples:
- A king personally participating in a battle is the most extreme example, though strategically unwise and no longer common for hundreds of years. If they win, the king gets the spoils. If they lose, the king is killed or kidnapped.
- During the COVID lockdown politicians rarely suffered any consequences of their own actions. Financially they were better off thanks to selling stocks on time, they were exempted from stay-at-home orders and could continue living in luxurious houses. Politicians flouting the rules were likewise spared the worst thanks to having preferential access to the best treatments.