There are two ways to think about this issue, and people often conflate them (intentionally or not):
- Intentional discrimination: The overt effort to inhibit or suppress a group merely because they are different.
- De facto discrimination: The objective fact that a given situation unfairly disadvantages one group more than another group, without regard to intention.
The Tiki-Torch marchers in Charlottesville were advocating for the first: it was clearly their expressed intuition that Jews, minorities, and immigrants should be suppressed. The fact that a white-skinned person can generally walk through a store or drive down a street without a thought of being surveilled or stopped by authorities (something a black person cannot generally afford to do) is de facto discrimination: no one is intending to discriminate, really, but the disadvantage is clear and obvious.
With respect to the Voting ID issue, I can make a good argument that his is intentional discrimination, because the same group of people:
- Stirs up trouble about essentially non-existent voting fraud
- Passes laws that make voting more difficult by requiring IDS (etc) using #1 as an excuse
- Imposes policies that make obtaining IDS (etc) more onerous and difficult for blacks and minorities than for whites
That is a pattern of behavior that appears to be a systematic effort to disenfranchise blacks and minorities on purpose.
On the other hand, the fact that such discriminatory outcomes exist as de facto differential treatment is largely accepted by everyone. Conservatives and GOP members usually deny that there is an intention of discrimination, but not one of them denies there is an actual discriminatory outcome. They just shrug and insist that it isn't their fault that it happens.
Of course, that is merely more evidence that many conservative and GOP leaders are engaged in intentional discrimination; their refusal to accept that patently differential treatment is unfair or inappropriate speaks to deep and conscious bias. But we don't need them to admit their intention to discriminate; we merely need to observe the actuality of differential treatment to to see there is de facto discrimination.