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I only found a brief 3rd party summary that says:

In accordance with the new agreement, Finland was free to enter any political or military alliance with a third party.

But I'm having trouble finding the full text of the 1992 treaty and what it says in detail about alliances. So, can someone quote the exact articles on that matter?

1 Answer 1

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It doesn’t say anything specifically about alliances, but it does include references to basing relations between the parties on the principle of sovereign equality, and a commitment from both parties to refrain from the threat or use of force against the other’s political independence - as well as a commitment to work for “mutual partnership and cooperation” with all countries.

The full text can be found here in Finnish and here in Russian - both translations are equally authentic, according to the treaty.

In English, the relevant parts seem to be Articles 1 & 4 - translation taken from here:

Article 1
Relations between the Parties shall, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations and the Final Act of CSCE, be based on such principles of international law as sovereign equality, abstention from the threat or use of force, the inviolability of borders, territorial integrity, the peaceful settlement of disputes, noninterference in internal affairs, respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, as well as equal rights and the right of peoples to self-determination. The Parties shall conscientiously fulfil their obligations under international law and, in a spirit of neighbourliness, work for mutual partnership and coöperation with all countries.

Article 4
The Parties shall refrain from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of the other Party and shall resolve disputes between themselves by peaceful means in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations and the Final Act of CSCE, as well as other CSCE instruments.

The Parties shall not use or allow the use of their territory for armed aggression against the other Party.

In the event that Finland or Russia is the victim of armed aggression, the other Party shall seek to bring about a settlement of the conflict in accordance with the principles and provisions of the Charter of the United Nations and CSCE instruments, and shall refrain from giving military assistance to the aggressor.

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  • 1
    "...and shall refrain from giving military assistance to the aggressor." So Finnish weapon deliveries to Russia are currently off the table.
    – Trilarion
    Apr 15 at 7:57
  • 3
    @Trilarion "In the event that Finland or Russia is the victim of armed aggression..." Apr 15 at 8:35
  • I guess much of that was left to interpretation, e.g the WaPo wrote: "The senior Russian official who signed today's accord said Russia had no problem with Finnish joining the EC. "We will go along with it and support it," Deputy Prime Minister Gennadi Burbulis said at a news conference after signing the agreement with Finnish Prime Minister Esko Aho." washingtonpost.com/archive/politics/1992/01/21/…
    – Fizz
    Apr 17 at 23:35
  • @GeoffreyBrent I wonder what happens if Russia continues to insist that Ukraine is armedly aggressing Russia and therefore Finland is prohibited from delivering weapons to Ukraine. Could be a pretext to invade Finland.
    – user253751
    Apr 19 at 18:37

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