It's theoretically an open question but it's worth noting that it probably depends on the elected office. Specifically, its untested whether the prohibition would extend to the vice presidency and presidency, which of course are the offices Trump is most likely to seek.
Griffin was disqualified under Section 3 of the 14th Amendment, which reads:
No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector
of President and Vice President, or hold any office, civil or
military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having
previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of
the United States, or as a member of any State legislature, or as an
executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the
Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection
or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies
thereof. But Congress may, by a vote of two-thirds of each House,
remove such disability.
Notably missing from the offices explicitly listed is the presidency. Those seeking to disqualify Trump would likely point to "any office, civil and military, under the United States" and argue that includes the presidency. But Article 2, Section 4 says the following:
The President, Vice President and all civil Officers of the United
States, shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for, and
Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and
Article 2, Section 3 also states:
He shall from time to time give to the Congress Information of the
State of the Union, and recommend to their Consideration such Measures
as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary
Occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them, and in Case of
Disagreement between them, with Respect to the Time of Adjournment, he
may adjourn them to such Time as he shall think proper; he shall
receive Ambassadors and other public Ministers; he shall take Care
that the Laws be faithfully executed, and shall Commission all the
Officers of the United States.
In both instances, there is a clear presumption that the president and "all officers" are two distinct categories. So even if we tend to think of the president as a civil or military office-holder, for the purpose of constitutional analysis, "officers" refers only to people appointed by the presidency.
So again, an open question, but there's a very strong case to be made that Trump could be barred from being a state senator or a judge or a governor. But my guess is you're really asking if he can be barred from the presidency, and it's likely courts would rule that no, he cannot, at the very least not without impeachment.