I saw a similar image a while ago (December 2021) on Facebook, originally published by Statista and compiled my own diagram.
My main complaints with that one, which also apply here are:
- It doesn’t show the before, and the UK was never a member of some of these groups / agreements
- It misses off some other European (and wider) groups. I wouldn’t expect a diagram to show every agreement in existence (e.g. UN, NATO, UKAUS, Commonwealth, etc), but the CTA feels like a fairly obvious missing one given its European scope and Schengen similarity. The ETFA made it to the list! The various absent Scandinavian treaties are pretty important to those countries.
- The United Kingdom is 4 countries, with varying relationships to the EU. The United Kingdom is itself a pretty important organisation, and is not just one bloc (in this case).
- Switzerland, Türkiye, San Marino and Andorra have more nuanced relationships than implied. Plus The Holy See is absent (as is Gibraltar in the OP image)
The original diagram I drew had a number of mistakes, so here is a corrected version:
Some countries have a * symbol. This means they have similar or equivalent status to that shown, but through other treaties rather than direct members / signatories.
- Gibraltar is not a member of Schengen yet, there’s still negotiations going on.
- Switzerland's status is somewhat close to EEA but through bilateral treaties, rather than a direct member.
- Northern Ireland is not a member of the EU custom but, under the current ‘Northern Ireland Protocol’, it’s partially required to abide by a subset of rules of the EU single market and custom union. This was clarified in the linked article, just not in their image.
- Turkey is not a member of the EU Customs Union, but there is a bilateral agreement
Thanks to Rodrigo for these clarifications
Despite the original diagrams having them, I have excluded Monaco, Andorra, San Marino and The Holy See because their relationships with the EU are complicated, often facilitated by their "host" country. Generally they have freedom of movement and goods, use the Euro and are not members of the EU. Gibraltar remains because it's status was changed by Brexit.
Feel free to share this image with attribution.