In March 2020, the European Union and 15 other WTO members agreed to a Multiparty Interim Appeal Arbitration Arrangement (MPIA). This created an alternative appellate body while the official WTO body is not functional. It mirrors the usual WTO appeal rules and can be voluntarily used between any WTO members to resolve disputes. The European Commissioner for Trade Phil Hogan said: "This is a stop-gap measure to reflect the temporary paralysis of the WTO's appeal function for trade disputes ... We will continue our efforts to restore the appeal function of the WTO dispute settlement system as a matter of priority."[4] Since being announced, the People's Republic of China and other WTO member nations have joined the MPIA


It seems to me that the U.S. blocking the nomination of new judges is negatively affecting the functioning of the WTO, but it also seems that the MPIA is allowing the WTO to function as it should. Is the MPIA a perfect remedy to American actions, or do American actions still have a negative effect on the WTO despite the MPIA being put into place by the other members?

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    You mean specifically for disputes between the nations who have joined, because it's obviously not a replacement for the WTOAB for nations that haven't joined? If neither the WTO nor the MIAA can adjudicate on disputes involving some nations, that's a bad thing, no?
    – Stuart F
    Commented Dec 9, 2022 at 11:27

1 Answer 1


The US hasn't signed up to MPIA and has appealed some cases "into oblivion". The EU has responded by adopting legislation/regulations that allows them to treat such cases as a violation of trade rules, so in theory that weakens the WTO a fair bit. Some American scholars have argued though that that's no big deal because the EU also didn't comply with WTO dispute resolution in the past, preferring to put up with the retaliatory measures rather than comply.

So, whether the WTO is now worse off than in the past... it depends whom you ask.

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