- How much has Russia paid Ukraine, in non-Ruble currency, for the gas transiting through Ukraine to EU in 2022?
- How were the transfers accomplished? SWIFT?
- Which entity was debited, and which entity was credited?
- What currency was used?
- What entity controls the incoming funds, and where are these funds held?
I am sure an economist can chime in with better data than what I found.
1. How much has "Russia" paid, in non-Ruble, "Ukraine" for gas transiting through Ukraine to EU in 2022?
According to Bloomberg, Ukraine earns around $2 billion a year in transit fees. The Kyiv Independent however quotes Naftogaz CEO Vitrenko as saying that Ukraine earns around $1 billion in transit fees. Yet another source claims that Ukraine earned around $3 billion in transit fees in 2018. As to whether it was not in Russian Ruble, I am not sure (though I think it is highly unlikely that Russia would pay in any other currency).
2. How were the transfers accomplished? SWIFT?
Yes, through banks. And probably through SWIFT (unless Ukranian banks had a tie up, in the past, with Russia to use their system):
As the battle in Ukraine rages, the European Union has made official the list of Russian banks that will be expelled from SWIFT ... Notably, the ban excludes two of the country's biggest institutions, Sberbank and Gazprombank. The two were exempted because they handle most of the payments related to gas and oil exports, on which the EU heavily depends to produce energy ... Alternatives to SWIFT include China's CIPS, India's SFMS and Russia's SPFS, as well as more rudimentary methods such as tax and phone messages, which are time-consuming and pose security risks.
3. Which entity was debited, and which entity was credited?
I believe Russia's Gazprom pays the transit fees. Not sure who in Ukraine gets the money. According to Bloomberg:
Russian gas producers have so far avoided European Union sanctions, as have major state-owned banks Sberbank PJSC and Gazprombank PJSC, Vitrenko said. That means gas exporters can use their accounts to get revenues and pay back international contractors.
4. What currency was used?
Ukraine says Russia still pays in hard currency for natural gas transit. (No idea though whether it is Russian Ruble or some other currency).
5. What entity controls the incoming funds, and where are these funds held?
No idea who gets the fund now. In the past there were allegations of corruption and political controversies that friends of Ukraine's former President were getting these contracts. I assume that since Zelensky renewed the agreement this time, he must have changed the beneficiary (fighting corruption was one of the political planks that made him the President). Also have no idea of how (cash, bond, precious metals etc.) or where the funds are stored.