I am looking for examples of both successful and unsuccessful national secession attempts in the 21st century in order to determine in which contexts the international community has supported or opposed such attempts.

In general, under what conditions have the international community been supportive of secession attempts in recent decades? Under what conditions have they been opposed? When faced with a situation of national schism, does the international community generally prefer secession of part of the country or overthrow of the entire government? On what factors have either option been preferred?

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    Successful can be found here: South Sudan, East Timor and Montenegro. Commented Jan 10, 2023 at 14:06
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    The Scotland independence referendum comes to mind (The UK had signaled that they would accept the outcome of the referendum, which means the rest of the world would have had little reason to not recognize Scottish independence too).
    – Philipp
    Commented Jan 10, 2023 at 14:27
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    Catalonia in Spain counts as one, and Somaliland from Somalia. And as for "international"--read "the West" because Africans' voices are underreported, the Middle East wants to offend nobody, and South America has to obey US positions--basically, those seccessions that would harm the nation oppose the West would be supported by the West. While those secessions harming Western interests would be opposed by the West--the current Eastern-block would choose to remain silent as to avoid riling up their own seccessionists
    – Faito Dayo
    Commented Jan 10, 2023 at 15:29
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    @FaitoDayo I don't think that Somaliland counts as unsuccessful as they are independent, unchallenged just unrecognized. "And as for "international"--read "the West"" You should read "developed", as otherwise you are missing a few relevant powers like Japan. "Middle East wants to offend nobody" Unless of course they are busy not recognizing Israel. "the current Eastern-block" Which block?
    – Shadow1024
    Commented Jan 10, 2023 at 16:15
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    "The Middle East wants to offend nobody": something that apparently Israel was not thinking when it recognized Kurdistan, nor the Arab League when it rejected such recognition, nor apparently Syria when it opposed a UN vote against the 2014 Crimean independence referendum. Rinse and repeat.
    – Obie 2.0
    Commented Jan 11, 2023 at 2:24


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