According to an answer on a related question:

In 1910, the physician oligopoly was started during the Republican administration of William Taft after the American Medical Association lobbied the states to strengthen the regulation of medical licensure and allow their state AMA offices to oversee the closure or merger of nearly half of medical schools and also the reduction of class sizes. The states have been subsidizing the education of the number of doctors recommended by the AMA.

There's likewise a shortage of spots in Germany and Canada. But are there any countries which have solved this problem and anyone passing the medical school entrance exam is guaranteed a spot at a medical school? In other words, I'm looking for countries where the number of medicine students is restricted by the number of talented people rather than a limit on how many students schools can accommodate.

  • Related: politics.stackexchange.com/questions/69462/… Commented Jun 19, 2023 at 6:01
  • 9
    Perhaps I didn't understand your question - are you asking if there are medical colleges without any caps on the number of students they can admit? I don't see how that would work as colleges too, like any organisations, are constrained by resource and budgetary constraints.
    – sfxedit
    Commented Jun 19, 2023 at 10:30
  • 2
    @sfxedit The question is asking whether there is a country where medical colleges are free to take decisions to increase admission without getting permit from anybody, except maybe a sanity check based on resources they have available.
    – alamar
    Commented Jun 19, 2023 at 12:46
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    This question does not appear to be about politics or government rather the amount of students that can be taught at a given school or type of schools in a country. As the number of medical students at any given school (or the system as a whole) will be limited by the number that they can effectively teach at those schools and not a government policy.
    – Joe W
    Commented Jun 19, 2023 at 20:46
  • 3
    From your quote, it doesn't seem like the state is directly limiting the class sizes. It's indirectly limited by the amount of tuition subsidies that the states provide.
    – Barmar
    Commented Jun 20, 2023 at 21:48

1 Answer 1


In 2020, in , a reform of the first three years of medical training a reform was implemented and which led to the end of the numerus clausus.

That numerus clausus, introduced in 1974, was applied to how many students can enter the second year of medical studies after a competition known as the Première année commune d'études de santé ((Common first year of medical studies) PACES), comprising most specialties before splitting in the second year.

The last numerus clausus was :

Study type Number
Medicine 9361
Odontology 1332
Maieutics 1039
Pharmacy 3265

Since 2020, the competition is no more and the Parcours spécifique accès santé ((Specific path for health access) or PASS)/Licence option accès santé ((Bachelor with health access option) or L.AS) has taken its place and anyone succeeding in either the PASS (one year, with year-end exams) or the L.AS (Three year) can get into the medical studies proper.

The number of students that can pretend to this is limited by the actual capacity of the universities that offer that cursus, this is why this is now called numerus apertus, for 2023-2024 this number is around 15000 students

  • Pardon my ignorance, but what (the heck) is Maieutics about? A cursory search only brings up something from philosophy, which does not sound too relevant.
    – TooTea
    Commented Jul 2, 2023 at 21:40
  • @TooTea It's the studies to become a midwife. Wikitionnary Commented Jul 3, 2023 at 4:21

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