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I've been trying to answer this question on my own, with no success, mostly because it's not often clear what the official law is and what is actually enforced.

Hopefully this question isn't too broad, since there should be a single concrete answer. Obviously, countries that are currently in the state of anarchy and the like are not included in the question.

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Disclaimer: Before I answer, I need to specify that age of consent is such a debate because as you want to put there's not an only answer; each continent, country and region depend of their own culture or tradition and the law is unclear with the age per se, so since you asked for age of consent and didn't clarify which act do you ask for, I'm going to answer since the legal sex and marriage view. For example (generically speaking), the age of consent to drink alcohol is 18 but you can marry at 15 years with the father's consent.

Now: the lowest age of consent in the entire world (generically speaking) is Angola. To have heterosexual sex you need to have 12 years old. According to several links I've been checking, in this country, while you can have sex with 12, most of the sex acts made and/or practiced in this age can be considered as sexual abuse and punished with 5 to 8 years of prison. Yet, you can do it, but considering some differences between their internal laws.

The Angola's Penal Code establishes punishments for people who commit sexual abuse with someone under the age of 14, the legal age for someone to have legal (forgive the repetition) heterosexual sex (Art. 179 - 184). But, to get married, according to the Civil Code the girl need to have 15 (not less) years and the male at least 16 years, with parent consent of both. (Art. 24).

Again, this question is very generic, so there won't be AN answer, there are lot of answers.

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    In Spain the law has been reformed in 2015 and the age of consent has been raised to 16. See the article 183 of the Código Penal. This reform actually begins to be active from July, 1, 2015. – Daniel Daranas Apr 30 '15 at 13:08
  • The link says it is 14 the age of consent in Angola for those who are under 16, and 16 is age of consent for sex with anobody older than 16, so -1 – Anixx Apr 30 '15 at 20:53
  • The text needed more clarification, so I added more information. Even the question is very vague, I made some mistakes but I checked (again) and fixed @Anixx what is think is wrong. The age per se stands in 12 according to others links en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ages_of_consent_in_Africa#Angola however, I made more changes to make myself more specific. – nelruk Apr 30 '15 at 22:33
  • I do not see anything about 12 y.o. following the link. Any sex with someone below 14 is abuse and any sex with someone below 16 is abuse if the perpetrator is above 16 – Anixx Apr 30 '15 at 22:45
  • I put a Wikipedia link. In that, Angola's age of consent is 12. But as I explained before and made more clarifications about sex, legal sex and marriage consent (with permission), there are some differences. Please @Anixx would you please check the answer? – nelruk Apr 30 '15 at 22:51
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i Believe it may be the Vatican city state @12 ( of course you have to be married)

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    It would be worth adding a source indicating that this is the age of consent in the vatican, and that there isn't a lower one. – Avi Jul 6 '15 at 3:44
  • I believe it was an attempt to be funny, but a very failed one. – Bregalad Jul 6 '15 at 8:37
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    @Bregalad It actually was 12 as far back as 2013, so this looks like a genuine attempt at an answer. – Sam I am says Reinstate Monica Jul 6 '15 at 14:04
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    It does not require you to be married. The Vatican's code is based on that of Italy in 1920s where there was no requirement for marriage and punishment for extra-marriage relations. – Anixx Sep 4 '15 at 12:33

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