Has a bill ever failed to pass in a house of Congress with zero votes in favor?
There's been 2 such bills as per the data on the GovTrack website.
- H.R. 3989 (105th): User Fee Act of 1998 failed to pass with 0 votes in favor and 421 votes opposed. Even the bill's sponsor (Gerald Solomon) voted against it.
- H.R. 3085 (106th): Discretionary Spending Offsets Act for Fiscal Year 2000. Failed with 0 votes in favor and 419 votes against. The bill's sponsor (Terry Lee) likewise voted against it.
There's also been 35 other votes with 0 votes in favor, but those were motions rather than bill votes.
Yes, in the Senate.
I am not sure about the US House of Representatives.
However, for the Senate there is a recent one.
The Green New Deal. It received 0 yes votes and 57 no votes.
Introduce on Valentine's Day 2019 (02/14/2019) and voted down the following month on 03/26/2019.
The sponsors of the bill and associated party voted "present" instead of a yea or nay, resulting in the 0-57 final tally.