The Black Sea Grain Initiative, was brokered in July of 2022 by Turkey (and the UN?), and involved Russia, Ukraine and other world states. Russia has recently (July 2023) allowed the deal to expire without renewal, making various accusations against the West.
The deal had allowed for safe passage of Ukrainian ships carrying grain through the black sea, subject to inspections in Istanbul; but - what exactly was the other side of the deal? i.e. what did the Russian Federation get in return?
The UN's "note to correspondents" about the deal, from last year, says:
An agreement was also reached with the Russian Federation on the scope of engagement of the United Nations to facilitate the unimpeded exports to world markets of Russian food and fertilizer – including the raw materials required to produce fertilizers. This agreement is based on the principle that measures imposed on the Russian Federation do not apply to these products.
That is rather vague. Were there guarantees of:
- Access by Russia / Russian firms / Russian banks to the SWIFT system for the purpose of receive payments for exported grain & fertilizer?
- Access to relevant shipping and other insurance from non-Russian insuring entities?
- Access by grain/fertilizer-trade-related Russian individuals and firms to their assets in sanctioning world states which had been frozen?
This story suggests that some indirect channel for payment processing existed between JP Morgan Chase and the Russian Rosselkhozbank bank, and demands for the above to be arranged for, but it's not clear to me what part of that was supposed to happen in the original deal and didn't, and what part is Russia demanding better terms.