Second, lobbying in Singapore is restricted through the strict regulation of both political donations and election expenditure as well as limited campaigning time.

This is to avoid what has happened in mature democracies like Australia, where the media recently exposed apparent attempts by China to influence Australian politicians through political donations, or the United States, where cooperations and unions can influence the political scene through their massive donations, following the defeat of Citizens United vs Federal Elections Commission in the Supreme Court.


Which democratic country has the strictest laws concerning political lobbying? I was reading this article and I was wondering which country has the most strictest laws and regulations that prevent abuse from lobbying. I am thinking because Singapore is a very "imperfect" democracy - since it is essentially a one-party autocracy - it shouldn't count, so I was wondering which country had the strictest laws concerning political lobbying.

  • 3
    As a relevant resource, the OECD has published Lobbying in the 21st Century: Transparency, Integrity and Access. Especially the annex has detailed tables on standards in each member country.
    – ccprog
    Commented Aug 17, 2023 at 22:58
  • What do you mean by “democratic”? I assume that the DPRK is not, despite its name.. In general use democratic appears to mean whatever people want it to. I would agree that Singapore is not democratic. Perhaps there is a source list of countries you agree are all within the sphere of democratic?
    – user46746
    Commented Aug 19, 2023 at 20:10

1 Answer 1


I'm not sure if there is a effort to score just the laws themselves. In the US the Centre for Public Integrity (CPI) publishes an index of the effectiveness of these laws, which also depends on their implementation, not just what they say on paper. It uses 48 questions, which can be read in full here. Said index is notable enough to e.g. be cited by the Venice Commission. I think the CPI themselves only publish their results for US and Canada regularly; the Venice Commission applied their methodology to EU countries as well though. The results are a bit dated (from 2011) and the highest was still the US 2007 at federal level [score 62 of 100] (with Washington state higher though, 87). The highest from the EU was Hungary 2006 then (45), on par with Canadian federal of 2003, but below Canadian federal of 2008 (50). (I guess the latter had been strengthened in the meantime.) Hungary has scored merely one point higher than Lithuania though, so it's a nearly tie, I guess. Taiwan comes next from non-US/Canada with 38, nearly on par with several Australian states that score 35-36. Some large[er] EU countries score[d] very low; Poland (27), France (20), Germany (17).

(There is some newer EU Parliament work in grouping EU countries, but it does not use the CPI index methodology, instead it uses some looser grouping in three groups of having some mandatory requirements, just incentives, or no regulations. According to this France, Poland and Lithuania are in the first group, Germany or Italy in the 2nd, and a bunch of other EU countries like Spain or Sweden in the 3rd.)

Also FWTW, there is a newer 2022 Lobbying Disclosure Quality 'scorecard' by Open Secrets on US states (only) the results are somewhat consistent with CPI ones, in the sense that Washington state again scored highest.

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