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What are so-called "reports" in the European Parliament?

If reports have no legislative effect, are they just mere declaration of intention of the parliament?

What kind of majority is needed to formally adopt a report? Is it a simple majority or a qualified majority?

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In common with most Parliaments, much of the business of the EU Parliament is not done in a plenary session of the whole Parliament, but by committees. For example there is a Committee on Transport and Tourism.

When the Parliament receives a proposal (from the Commission), for example on regulation of sustainable air transport. Parliament will refer this to an appropriate committee to consider in detail.

The committee will then prepare a report on the proposal, which will include their findings and, significantly any proposed amendment to the proposal. Through the amendments, the report has a legislative effect.

The report is presented back to Parliament who can then vote to approve the final text or not. Voting in Parliament is by simple majority. Voting in council may be by simple, qualified or unanimous majority, depending on the nature of the issue.

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    This answer could be improved by explaining how a "report" is different from other forms of EU legislation like "directives", "regulations" or "decisions".
    – Philipp
    Commented Oct 17, 2023 at 11:48

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