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According to VOA:

In his remarks, Biden said Israel had agreed that humanitarian assistance could begin to move from Egypt into Gaza and announced $100 million in U.S. aid for Palestinians. He vowed to provide Israel what it needed to defend itself but urged restraint in its retaliation.

Can the executive (or some US agencies) disburse those $100 million to Palestinians from existing programs, or does Biden need new Congress approval for that kind of sum? (As we know the lower house of Congress is presently mired in budget and even Speaker-election disputes.)

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There's nothing I can find on where they specifically intend to get the funding, but $100M is not a lot of money in a $2T budget. My bet is that it's money already allocated that was either not designated for a specific use, or it was meant to be paid out, but got halted after the Oct 7 attacks. The US State Department lists some possible sources for funding in general

Since April 2021, the United States has provided over half a billion dollars in assistance for the Palestinians, including more than $417 million in humanitarian assistance for Palestinian refugees through UNRWA, $75 million in support through USAID, and $20.5 million in COVID and Gaza recovery assistance.

The U.S. government plans to provide an additional $75 million in economic assistance to the Palestinian people this year. Additionally, the United States is also providing $45 million for programs to support the security sector including important improvements to the rule of law.

And

In addition, $100 million directed to the Nita M. Lowey Middle East Partnership for Peace Act (MEPPA) for the first two years of a 5-year commitment will strengthen people-to-people engagement between Palestinians and Israelis to create the conditions for lasting peace.

I would assume some of these funding sources are still available to pull from.

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Question

Can Biden disburse $100 million dollars to the Palestinians as aid from already approved programs, or does he have to go to Congress for approval?

Depends who you ask. Historically when the President needs a few Billion quickly and Congress is unable or unwilling to act. Presidents have found a way.

I'm thinking of Mexico 1995. The peso's value dropped 40% just after NAFTA was signed. President Bill Clinton asked congress to provide loan guarantees to allow Mexico to cope with the crisis. Congress refused.

Dec 1994 Mexican Bail out

Undaunted, Clinton unveiled an alternate rescue plan that would "save" Mexico by letting Zedillo's government take money from the U.S. Treasury Department's Exchange Stabilization Fund, which was designed to help America's "friends" out of temporary currency crises. The Exchange Stabilization Fund had traditionally provided assistance for very short periods of time, usually less than a year. But under Clinton's bail-out plan, the White House allowed the Mexican government to withdraw at least $2.5 billion from the fund, with repayment schedules stretching out from 10 months to 10 years.

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