Yes, it can. Parliament is sovereign in the UK, which means that the legislature is supreme over the executive and judicial branches. If parliament were to pass a bill which overruled the Supreme Court's judgement, that is what would happen.
The proposed legislative pathway is slightly more than just declaring Rwanda to be safe though, and - based on Sunak's statement - will focus on addressing the issue raised in the court's judgement. In particular, the court held that Rwanda could not be considered a safe country because there were "substantial grounds for believing that the removal of the claimants to Rwanda would expose them to a real risk of ill-treatment by reason of refoulement".
Sunak proposed in his press conference that the government would agree a new treaty with Rwanda which would "provide a guarantee in law that those who are relocated from the UK to Rwanda will be protected against removal from Rwanda" and "make clear that [the UK] will bring anyone back if ordered to do so by a court".
Thereafter, to attempt to prevent another 18 months or so of the policy again going through the court system, Sunak will put forward legislation to "enable Parliament to confirm that, that with our new Treaty, Rwanda is safe". If Parliament agrees, this would stop the policy being challenged on these grounds in the UK's domestic courts.
Sunak went on in his press conference to state that he "will not allow a foreign court to block these flights". Parliament, via legislation, could empower the government to ignore injunctions or rulings from the European Court of Human Rights, or withdraw from the European Convention on Human Rights altogether.
The Safety of Rwanda (Asylum and Immigration) Bill, published a few weeks after this answer was posted, includes the clause "Every decision-maker must conclusively treat the Republic of Rwanda as a safe country". 'Decision-maker' is defined in the bill as the Home Secretary, immigration officials, and courts/tribunals considering a decision made by the aforementioned. 'Safe country' is defined as "a country to which persons may be removed from the United Kingdom in compliance with all of the United Kingdom's obligations under international law that are relevant to the treatment in that country of persons who are removed there".