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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indo-Pacific_Economic_Framework

Sullivan confirmed on Sunday that Taiwan — which had sought membership in the IPEF framework— isn’t among the governments that will be included. Participation of the self-ruled island of Taiwan, which China claims as its own, would have irked Beijing.

Sullivan said the U.S. wants to deepen its economic partnership with Taiwan, including on high technology issues and semiconductor supply on a one-to-one basis.

https://www.marketwatch.com/story/bidens-indo-pacific-trade-pact-wont-include-taiwan-at-launch-01653261066

The Indo-Pacific Economic Framework for Prosperity (IPEF) is an economic initiative launched by U.S. President Joe Biden on May 23, 2022. Why wasn't Taiwan invited to join the IPEF? The quote above doesn't make it explicit, but it seems that the U.S. didn't want Taiwan to join IPEF to not provoke China, and yet China was against IPEF all along.

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  • Probably just to maintain the standard diplomatic fiction that Taiwan is not a sovereign country even though it has been one de facto for 74 years. Though AFAICT, there's no reason Taiwan can't apply even if it wasn't explicitly invited.
    – dan04
    Commented Nov 16, 2023 at 0:11
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    It looks as if Taiwan is not that hurt by it anyway, as there are other trade agreements and the TBA, means not being part of IPEF is not a major issue. Commented Nov 16, 2023 at 0:17
  • The article states a reason. Do you want to know why it would irk China?
    – Stuart F
    Commented Nov 17, 2023 at 16:49

1 Answer 1

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TL;DR:

Whilst no explicit reason was given when announcing Taiwan was not invited to IPEF, a lot of commentary afterwards was on the same track:

  • Fear of irking China,
  • to not want to pick sides,
  • what should we call Taiwan?

The first two are common reasons when any ASEAN countries are looking at anything potentially including Taiwan. That said, everyone is also probably aware that Taiwan pursues bilateral agreements separately with the other nations anyway.

https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2022/5/31/excluded-from-asia-trade-pact-taiwan-may-get-us-trade-deal

Although the IPEF is intended to counterbalance China’s growing clout in the Asia-Pacific, it is likely that some members are reluctant to include Taiwan for fear of upsetting China.

https://www.csis.org/analysis/quick-take-indo-pacific-economic-framework-launch

While Taiwan has indicated interest in joining the IPEF—and 250 members of Congress called for Taiwan’s inclusion—the island was ultimately left out of the framework to secure the participation of other South and Southeast Asian countries reluctant to antagonize Beijing.

https://www.politico.com/news/2022/05/22/taiwan-biden-indo-pacific-pact-00034255

Inclusion of the self-ruled island of Taiwan, which China claims as its own, would have irked Beijing.

“We are looking to deepen our economic partnership with Taiwan including on high technology issues, including on semiconductor supply,” Sullivan said. “But we’re pursuing that in the first instance on a bilateral basis.”

https://focustaiwan.tw/business/202205230005

Taipei, May 23 (CNA) Two Taiwanese analysts said Sunday that Taiwan has been excluded from the United States' new Indo-Pacific economic initiative to avoid painting the framework as an anti-China coalition, which would deter other countries.

https://english.cw.com.tw/article/article.action?id=3238

Roy Chun Lee, Senior Deputy Executive Director at the Taiwan WTO & RTA Center, points out that any action against corruption or in support of infrastructure would be connected to national sovereignty. ASEAN members are afraid of being asked to "pick a side".

https://thediplomat.com/2022/05/why-was-taiwan-left-out-of-the-us-led-ipef/

In reality, the major hurdle for Taiwan to join this multilateral framework comes down to the perennial issue of what name to use. Taiwan is currently a member of the WTO under the name of “The Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu.” For the U.S., allowing Taiwan to join the IPEF framework under the same name runs the risk of providing legitimacy to arrangements that degrade or belittle Taiwan’s sovereignty. The name of “Taiwan” is a non-starter, too, as it would challenge the current U.S. One China policy.

The U.S. is also hedging against potential blowback from Beijing, as most Indo-Pacific nations are still trying to avoid “picking sides” in the competition. For many of China’s neighbors, especially countries in Southeast Asia, it is imperative to maintain access to China’s market. Seven of the 10 ASEAN members joined IPEF’s launch; they may have thought twice if the event turned into a statement on Taiwan’s international status. Thus, including Taiwan in the first round of countries participating in IPEF could have embroiled the U.S. in a controversy over Taiwan’s representation, and the U.S. would not want the focus of the framework to be overshadowed.

OP asked:

but it seems that the U.S. didn't want Taiwan to join IPEF to not provoke China, and yet China was against IPEF all along.

Although China was critical of IPEF, it would be also critical of anyone joining it if it included Taiwan. US knows this and wanted to kick start something after Trump had left the previous framework. Due to the perceived relationship between Taiwan and the US, all countries in the region would have presumed Taiwan to be included, and this would make them think twice about signing up with China staring them down. Remove Taiwan and the signees can breathe a little easier about signing.

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  • I don't think problem #3 is that big of a problem. There are several similar contexts in which both "countries" have mutually agreed on "Chinese Taipei", e.g. for membership in the IOC, APEC, or WHO. The WTO uses the catchy name "Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu", but often abbreviates it to Chinese Taipei as well. The "Chinese Taipeians(?!?)" are not happy with the name and consider it oppressing, but it is an existing, established compromise that is already working in other organizations. Commented Nov 16, 2023 at 16:13
  • The trick is that the adjective "Chinese" can be translated two different ways, as referring to the country or the culture, and the two "countries" use different translations. That way, they can both use the official English term "Chinese Taipei" but translate it differently internally, to avoid losing face. Commented Nov 16, 2023 at 16:16

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