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Politico:

Duda, originally a European Parliament backbencher from the Law and Justice (PiS) party before becoming president in 2015, has long been loyal to the nationalist party.

Tusk and his allies have promised wrenching changes to the PiS program — rolling back draconian restrictions on abortion, limiting the role of religion in the education system, and firing PiS loyalists in media and state companies. The likely incoming government also wants to undo years of judicial reforms that were aimed at bringing judges under tighter political control but which ignited a battle with the EU that saw Brussels punish Warsaw by withholding billions in EU funds over rule of law concerns.

The problem for Tusk is that many of those changes require new laws, and Duda wields a presidential veto that will be very difficult to overcome.

“I have used the veto more than once. I will not hesitate to do so again,” Duda told the weekly.

What kind of laws did Duda veto in the past? It's a bit confusing because IIRC PiS also held the PM position in the past decade or so (2015-2023).

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There's a full list of Duda's use of the veto on the website of the Polish presidency. So far, Duda has vetoed 13 laws since he came to power in 2015.

  1. Gender Recognition Act, October 2015
  2. Amendment to the Act on national and ethnic minorities and the regional language etc, October 2015
  3. The ratification of the Doha Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, October 2015
  4. Amendment to the Forest Act, October 2015
  5. Amendment to the RIO Act, July 2017
  6. Amendment to the National Council of the Judiciary Act, July 2017
  7. Supreme Court Act, July 2017
  8. Act on the deprivation of military ranks of persons and reserve soldiers who, in the years 1943-1990, had betrayed the Polish raison d'état by their attitude, March 2018
  9. Amendment to the Electoral Code, August 2018
  10. Amendment to the Act on Government Administration Departments, January 2021
  11. Broadcasting Act, December 2021
  12. Amendment to the Education Law, March 2022
  13. Amendment to the Education Law, December 2022
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  • Based on some of those law names, one might guess some of those vetoes might have been hindering or moderating some of the (more extreme?) PiS agenda, but it's hard to be sure just from the law names. (Conversely he might have vetoed laws that were not extreme enough, but that would be a bit more unusual, I guess.) The environmental law vetoes are probably the least unclear. Nov 23, 2023 at 23:33
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    @Fizz Regarding to changes in judiciary system the president was pushing towards compliance with EU suggestions. Nov 24, 2023 at 7:35
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    The education law amendments were to limit sex ed and anti-discrimination classes, and were veto'd in response to wide-spread public opposition. The broadcasting act critics said was aimed at silencing a Discovery-owned news channel that is critical of the government. Those 2 vetoes were progressive and anti-PiS, but the same definitely can't be said about the gender one, for example.
    – NotThatGuy
    Nov 24, 2023 at 12:11

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