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A user of this community (whom I do not name to respect the Politics SE policies) says in comments to another question:

I am one of the few here who support the Palestinian right to self-determination and return of their land.

I am interested therefore in statistical data on the western (and beyond) support for the Palestinian self-determination. Note that this is not the same as support for Palestinians vs. support for Israel. Indeed, many Israel supporters also support the Palestinian self-determination - e.g., in the context of the two-state solution, which is the internationally accepted formula for resolving the Arab-Israeli conflict (i.e., a Palestinian state alongside the Jewish state.) On the other hand, there are Palestinian supporters who do not support the Palestinian self-determination: e.g., in the context of one-state solution one may believe in a single Palestinian state "from the river to the sea", but more nuanced views usually speak of a bi-national state where Jews and Muslims enjoy equal rights, and there non-dominance of either group is guaranteed - this view denies the self-determination to both peoples.

Remark
Just to clarify: the two state solution is accepted by most western states, by the Arab states (although not in Oslo context), and certainly by the UN - where the original partition plan originated, and where the Palestinian authority has the observer status. Moreover, many western Parliaments voted for recognition of the Palestinian state (headed by the Palestinian Authority.)

The question is about the public support for a Palestinian state (not necessarily in the context of the TSS, and not as a part of a bi-national Palestinian-Arab-Jewish state.)

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    Support among whom? Palestinians? Israelis? Americans? Arabs? The world?
    – dan04
    Dec 11, 2023 at 20:21
  • @RogerV. I'd be quite interested in discussing it with you. I have only started thinking about that fact recently... I for sure agree that the way it is now it is not possible. As of now the only permanent solution, I think, would just be to have what the arrangement is now with the PA. Not necesarily in Gaza, but just in general.
    – Kovy Jacob
    Dec 11, 2023 at 22:50
  • @RogerV. Once one realizes that the 2 state solution won't work, but also a a bin-national state won't work either, its the real elephant in the room. Because if you want a permanent solution with a Jewish state, the things that would have to be done wouldn't be pleasant, nor would they be remotely realistic to do.
    – Kovy Jacob
    Dec 11, 2023 at 22:52
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    "return of their land" - is quite ambiguous. Return of what land exactly? All of it, including the territory of all of modern-day Israel, expelling all the Jews? Or only the 1948 borders? Or just the current status quo but with international recognition of them as an independent state?
    – vsz
    Dec 12, 2023 at 8:56
  • @vsz I merely quoted a statement made by someone else. But your remark is legitimate. Within the context of the Oslo peace process, one speaks of the right of return for those who previously lived in the territories that are now Israel and their descendants - and it is already one of the points that the two sides do not agree on. (Of course, Hamas rejects the Oslo process altogether.)
    – Roger V.
    Dec 12, 2023 at 9:00

3 Answers 3

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In 2011 the Palestinian statehood was supported by significant fraction of the world:

A BBC-GlobeScan poll suggests more people back UN recognition of Palestine as an independent state than oppose it. Across the 19 countries surveyed, 49% supported the proposal while 21% said their government should oppose it.

Even 55% of Americans support it, and only 35% oppose.

This is, however, not the same as to support Hamas side over Israeli side in they conflict. By 60% to 23%, Americans continue to sympathize more with the Israelis than the Palestinians in the Middle East situation.

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    I think this data refers specifically to the two-state-solution.
    – Roger V.
    Dec 11, 2023 at 11:44
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Question:

I am interested therefore in statistical data on the western (and beyond) support for the Palestinian self-determination.

I think officially in the United States both Democrats and Republicans support Palestinian independence. A two state solution was also the position of Israeli conservatives ( Sharon, Rabin) and more moderate Israeli leader,. prior to Netanyahu

The more aggressive position is the one state solution where the Palestinians seek Israeli citizenship and political participation.

Question #2

On the other hand, there are Palestinian supporters who do not support the Palestinian self-determination: e.g., in the context of one-state solution one may believe in a single Palestinian state "from the river to the sea", but more nuanced views usually speak of a bi-national state where Jews and Muslims enjoy equal rights, and there non-dominance of either group is guaranteed - this view denies the self-determination to both peoples.

The River to the sea per your link isn't a call for a single "Palestinian state". It's a call for a secular state like the United States, Canada, UK, or France.

Sorry to be nit picky but the details are important.

The phrase was popularized in the 1960s as part of a wider call for Palestinian liberation creating a democratic state freeing Palestinians from oppression from Israeli as well as from other Arab regimes such as Jordan and Egypt.[6][7] In the 1960s, the PLO used it to call for a democratic secular state encompassing the entirety of mandatory Palestine which was initially stated to only include the Palestinians and the descendants of Jews who had lived in Palestine before the first Aliyah, although this was later expanded.[8][9] Palestinian progressives use it to call for a united democracy over the whole territory[10] while others say "it's a call for peace and equality after ... decades-long, open-ended Israeli military rule over millions of Palestinians."

From Comments:

from: C.F.G

I disagree with this part Democrats and Republicans support Palestinian independence –

Most supporters of Israel regardless of party in the United States support a Palestinian state. the two state solution. You can quibble over what that means but that's been what politicians in both parties have been calling for and supporting for decades.

Joe Biden Democrat

Biden reiterated U.S. support for an independent Palestinian state next to a secure Israel — the so-called two-state solution — and said he had spoken with leaders of Jordan and Egypt, Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas and Saudi Arabia's Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman on “making sure there's real hope in ...Oct 25, 2023

Donald Trump Republican

MUTUAL RECOGNITION AND INDEPENDENCE: This Vision proposes a realistic two-state solution, offering a viable path to Palestinian statehood.

George W. Bush Republican

Israel also has a large stake in the success of a democratic Palestine. Permanent occupation threatens Israel's identity and democracy. A stable, peaceful Palestinian state is necessary to achieve the security that Israel longs for. So I challenge Israel to take concrete steps to support the emergence of a viable, credible Palestinian state.

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    The River to the sea per your link isn't a call for a single "Palestinian state". It's a call for a secular state like the United States, Canada, UK, or France. - This is a misleading statement - semantically the phrase can be interpreted in both ways, but it is extensively used by Hamas supporters, Iran and others calling for wiping out Israel - all this is covered in the Wikipedia article linked. Note also that the US and France are not bi-national states. Anyhow, there is no ambiguity in the question apart from the link.
    – Roger V.
    Dec 12, 2023 at 10:03
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    The US might say it supports a two-syate solution, but their actions suggest they support a one-state solution preceded by the genocide/ethnic cleansing of the Palestinians.
    – nick012000
    Dec 12, 2023 at 10:18
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    @nick01200, U.S. policy on Israel is fractured along party lines. It's very confusing. One party gives blanket support for Israeli's tied to an American grown interpretation of an end of days prophesy. I kid you not. You can call it Christian Zionism or Millennialist Protestant Restorationism it does end in genocide and not just for Palestinians. Either way it seems Israel welcomes their support. The other major American party would generally like to be helpful but sees no constructive role or progress possible in the immediate future. That's been their position for decades now.
    – JMS
    Dec 12, 2023 at 16:19
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    @prosfilaes, Hamas doesn't oppose a two-state solution. In 2008 their leadership accepted a two-state peace agreement with Israel as long as it was approved by a referendum of the Palestinian people or a newly elected government. see Hamas accepts two-state idea, says Carter
    – JMS
    Dec 12, 2023 at 16:30
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    @JMS I was looking at the 1996 Hamas document of principles; the newer 2017 version at web.archive.org/web/20170510123932/http://hamas.ps/en/post/678 does change things some. But while section 20 of that sort of accepts a two-state solution, both that section and section 27 deny it as a final solution, with 27 saying "There is no alternative to a fully sovereign Palestinian State on the entire national Palestinian soil, with Jerusalem as its capital."
    – prosfilaes
    Dec 12, 2023 at 20:40
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China's Official Position is supporting a Two-State Solution, as demonstrated by their statements in UN meetings. China supports Palestine because of sympathy for the plight of Palestine cause. But China also received help from Israel during the 90s and needs foreign investment from the West (whose business class, and in relation, the political elites, massively support Israel), so that is why China does what it does on diplomatic stages.

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