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According to Wikipedia, during EU accession negotiations:

A chapter is said to be closed when both sides have agreed it has been implemented sufficiently, however it can still be re-opened if the Commission feels that the candidate has fallen out of compliance.

Are there any examples where "closed" chapters were so reopened?

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  • Can you be more clear about what the word "chapter" means in this context?
    – ohwilleke
    Commented Dec 21, 2023 at 2:55
  • @ohwilleke: I've added a link. I think the Q is clear enough, even if the EU terminology may be strange to outsiders. Commented Dec 21, 2023 at 2:58
  • A link helps, but keep in mind that the goal of Politics.SE is to accumulate answers that outsiders can read and used to understand political issues for years to come.
    – ohwilleke
    Commented Dec 21, 2023 at 3:00

1 Answer 1

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In a broad sense *, you could say that EU concerns with Polish and Hungarian governance - such as independent judiciary and treatment of minorities - were "reopenings" of those subjects, after becoming an EU member.

Those weren't marginal "reopenings" either - billions of fund transfers were put on hold.

The European Union had frozen the money over concerns that Prime Minister Viktor Orban's government was doing too little to uphold the rule of law and combat corruption in the eastern European country.

Now, doubtless, when Hungary first applied for membership, rule of law and corruption had been a "chapter".

* Yes, this sidesteps what I believe to be an implicit criteria in the Q: examples of reopenings before a country becomes a full EU member. Perhaps someone else can give such an example.

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