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Canada has had historic difficulty supporting its Arctic claims of sovereignty due to the sparsity of population, remoteness, and difficulty in effectively demonstrating administrative capacity. Most challenges to Canada's arctic sovereignty have historically come from the United States.[31] As claims of sovereignty in the Arctic solidified with the end of territorial disputes around the Alaska panhandles, Canada's efforts at demonstrating sovereignty have shifted from the mainland of the north, to the Arctic Archipelago. Most recently, Canada's claims that the marine passageways within the Archipelago are Canadian internal waters have been actively challenged by the United States, who claims instead that these are international waters.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arctic_policy_of_Canada

The Wikipedia article claim that most challenges to Canada's arctic sovereignty have historically come from from the United States, but it doesn't mention other countries. I would like to know what are some other countries that challenged Canada on that front, and I am especially curious to know if there are any other Western or European countries that did challenge Canada's claim of sovereignty over their arctic territory.

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Yes, there are several examples.

  • Canada, Russia and Denmark have all made territorial claims on the Lomonosov Ridge.

  • Canada and Denmark have only recently resolved their decades-long dispute over the sovereignty of Hans Island/Tartapuluk.

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