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Numerous other developed countries have pushed back against China’s trade and investment practices. Australia has been the second-largest recipient of investment from China since 2007, after the United States. Australia’s oversight of Chinese investment has intensified since 2016, when Canberra rejected Chinese bids to buy Australian agribusiness and electricity grid operators.

Germany is another important case, as its high-tech manufacturing economy has made it China’s top investment destination in Europe. Chinese involvement in German industrial giants, including Daimler, which is developing new battery technologies, and Kuka, the country’s largest robotics producer, has raised alarms and led Berlin to call for a European Union–wide investment review body. France, too, has increased restrictions on foreign investment to stop what it calls “looting” of sensitive technologies. However, many smaller European countries, such as Greece and Portugal, worry that restricting outside capital could hamper their economic growth.

At the EU level, leaders have long complained about Chinese subsidies that distort the global economy, as well as restricted market access for European firms and the lack of protection for their intellectual property. The EU has filed complaints against China at the WTO and imposed anti-dumping measures on many products. Many of these issues are regularly aired during EU-China summits, the most recent of which, in July 2018, saw China promise improved market access and further talks for a comprehensive investment agreement.

https://www.cfr.org/backgrounder/made-china-2025-threat-global-trade

Did any developing country criticize China's industrial policies, which include dumping? After reading many opinion pieces about the controversial industrial policy of China, it seems most of the countries that complain about measures such as dumping and state subsidies are developed countries, but I was wondering if any developing countries have made any criticism towards China's industrial policies directly or indirectly. It seems to me that developing countries are less likely to see China's industrial policies as a threat to their economic development.

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Yeah. India at least:

12 Sep 2023

India has enacted a five-year anti-dumping duty targeting specific types of Chinese steel, as per an official government notice.

About a decade ago there were also some cases where South African branches of Western firms (GrafTech, Franke) but apparently involved in local production complained of dumping from China (graphite electrodes and steel sinks). The International Trade Administration Commission of South Africa (ITAC) agreed with the complainants in both cases.

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Yes, but most are not the most difficult part of developing countries. On 26 October 2017, India imposed anti-dumping duty on stainless steel from US, EU and China.

Interestingly, one of the conditions in the definition of dumping is predatory pricing, which refers to deliberately selling at a price below cost, but as far as I know this does not exist. The main reason for the low prices of Chinese products is that China has the most complete supply chain in the world. Most of the time, "anti-dumping" is just a "legitimate" reason for some countries to try to eliminate China's industrial advantages. They only look at prices and not costs.

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