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Yet the Lula administration’s frequent talk of new industrial policies—in partnership with China or not—has some economists nervous. Such policies are highly difficult to calibrate successfully, economist Emanuel Ornelas of the Getúlio Vargas Foundation told Foreign Policy. He said the current talk of industrial policy gives him “a little bit of goosebumps” and added that Brazil’s history is littered with failed industrial policies that led to industries that were “protected for decades and survived without becoming competitive internationally.”

Regardless of how Lula designs his latest industrial policies, the government does not have the money to launch the multibillion-dollar green stimulus packages that are all the rage in the United States and Europe. What it does have are raw materials, an internal market of 215 million people, and—if careful—the ability to bargain internationally

https://foreignpolicy.com/2023/04/21/brazil-china-lula-xi-trade-lavrov-russia-ukraine/

Did the Lula administration court other countries other than China for technology transfer for its industrial policies? So the article mentions how Brazil courted China to enhance cooperation in technology, but it seems strange to me that Brazil doesn't court other countries like Japan and South Korea, which are also strong in green technologies. Did the Lula administration court other countries for technology or industrial cooperation?

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  • Is your question about Lula's current term only? In 2014, under president Dilma (a close Lula's ally), Brazil bought multiple jets from Saab, a Swedish company, and that deal included technology transfer.
    – sourcream
    Commented Mar 3 at 23:50

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