Questions tagged [parliament]

Questions related to that of a legislative, elected body of Government known as Parliament. Use this with a country tag if asking about a specific country's Parliament

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Can a parliament pass laws that constrain the scope of future legislation?

For example, can a parliament pass a law that says: "Any future budget bill must contain a section that explains the estimated carbon emission this spending may lead to in the next 10 years."...
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Merging and splitting in apportionment

This question is about rules for apportionment of parliament seats among parties. Many such rules have the property, that a party may gain a seat by splitting into two parties, or two parties may gain ...
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Has a former Prime Minister ever broken a three-line whip before?

On July 13th, 2021, MPs voted against returning the budget for international aid to 0.7% after it was cut to 0.5% in the November Spending Review. Notably, several Conservative MPs voted against the ...
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Has the Swiss Federal Council recommended differently than the Parliament in any popular votes?

In Switzerland (at least in recent times), the Federal Council issues explanatory booklets for matters subject to popular votes (e.g. constitutional amendments and initiatives, referendums against ...
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Why has no party ever won a majority in Israel?

From this answer on this question (Emphasis mine): The change in leadership, in this case, is coming about after an election. Legislative elections were held in March 2021, but no party reached the ...
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4answers
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How does Israel change its leaders without an election?

How does the Israel Constitution work in relation to the forming of a government? According to the Washington Post and the Times of Israel, Yair Lapid is supposedly creating a new government, and ...
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Examples of unchallenged repetition in a Commons filibuster

In a BBC article explaining the Private Members' Bill ballot, the "art of filibustering" is described. It differs from a filibuster in the US Senate in that participants must actually talk ...
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What happens in the event of a tie in the Welsh Senedd?

The results of the recent UK elections have confirmed the continuation of a Labour government in the Senedd, winning 30 out of 60 seats. This is one seat short of a majority, so what happens in the ...
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Must Scottish voters cast both constituency and regional votes for their vote to be valid?

Scottish voters are heading to the polls on the 6th of May to elect 129 MSPs to a new term in the Scottish parliament at Holyrood. Each voter gets to cast two votes. Their first vote is a local ...
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Voting system with two votes as a defense against fear of voting for a loser - is it anywhere in the world?

In some countries there is a big fear among voters of voting for a party that doesn't end up in the parliament because they didn't reach the minimum threshold of votes, making their votes go in vain. ...
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In open-list voting systems, how do political parties ensure their leaders (and key figures) get elected?

In open-list voting systems, voters are free to select any candidate they prefer on the party list. The number of votes each candidate receives determines their rank within the list, and the higher ...
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Is it legal to talk about former Chief Justice of India (CJI) in the Parliament of India?

On 8 February 2021, Mahua Moitra said the following in her speech in Lok Sabha during the discussion on motion of thanks on the President's address: The sacred cow that was the judiciary is no longer ...
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What are the arguments for having a democratically-elected, ceremonial President?

Some countries, particularly those governed by the parliamentary system, tend to have a ceremonial head of state. In constitutional monarchies, those tend to be Kings or Queens. But in parliamentary ...
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House of Commons clarification on clapping

From my current understanding, MP's are not allowed to clap in the House of Commons. Instead, they say (or shout) "hear" to express themselves. However, after having watched this video, I've ...
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1answer
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What does defeat on the Address mean?

What's the "Address"? Queen’s Speech | The Institute for Government It is rare for the government to be defeated on the address in the Commons – as governments usually have a majority in ...
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Do the Italians usually choose external PMs?

Italian PM Giuseppe Conte resigned on Jan. 26 (but is still in office until a successor is chosen). I was surprised to see on his Wikipedia page (emphasis mine): Following the 2018 general election, ...
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Why was the Union Budget presented in the Lok Sabha (lower house) instead of the Rajya Sabha (upper house)?

Why was the Union Budget presented in the Lok Sabha (lower house) instead of the Rajya Sabha (upper house)? Recently The Union Budget of India for 2021–2022 was presented by the Finance Minister, ...
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What exactly does the collocation “pull the vote” mean?

Does it mean to give up and not organize the voting? Is there an opposite such as push (for) the vote? (I am an English learner/translator.) This is a context: "A ring-round of Cabinet on Friday ...
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Why do non-federations need bicameral parliaments?

Federations often have a bicameral parliament: one house speaks for the nation itself, whereas the other one speaks for the subjects within the federation (it could be summoned by the means of the ...
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1answer
133 views

Is there a country with a bipartisan Parliament formed in a proportional election?

An idea of a bipartisan Parliament formed in a proportional election seems quite interesting to me. On one hand, in a proportional system, we vote for a party, knowing which ideas it would go forward ...
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Is regular Prime Minister's Questions (PMQs) something unique to the Westminister system?

I've noticed that Prime Ministers in Westminister systems (i.e. United Kingdom, Scotland, Wales, Australia, New Zealand, etc.) are expected to answer questions in Parliament on a regular basis. This ...
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Why is the current Presiding Officer in Scottish Parliament a member of Labour Party, and not the Scottish National Party?

As of 2016, the Presiding Officer (i.e. Speaker) in the Scottish Parliament is Ken Macintosh. The curious thing is that Macintosh is a former member of the Labour Party (Presiding Officers are ...
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In parliamentary systems, why are Speakers of Parliament often granted special independence, despite no such protection is required in Constitution?

In parliamentary systems, the Speaker (once elected by the Parliament) usually cannot be removed by a decision of Parliament, which grants them special independence to act impartially. However, most ...
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How much time does it take for Australia to count votes in general elections?

For those who don't know, Australia uses ranked-choice voting for both the lower house (House of Representatives) and upper house (Senate) elections. I can't help but wonder the logistics of the vote ...
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In parliamentary democracy, how do Ministers compensate for their potential lack of relevant experience to run their own ministry?

Due to the fact that most parliamentary systems prefer having Members of Parliament as Ministers, how do Ministers make up for their lack of relevant experience when running a ministry? For example, a ...
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Are Members of Scottish and Welsh Parliaments called “Honourable”?

Members of Parliament in the House of Commons are referred to as "Honourable" or "Right Honourable". I understand why some members are Honourable and others Right Honourable. Does ...
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Writings or public statements advising elected politicians on how to make hard choices

While not always seen in this light, members of congressional or parliamentary bodies are regularly faced with moral choices when deciding how to vote in situations where the answers to questions like ...
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1answer
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Are all EP plenary vote results publically accessible? Where?

Recently I struggled to find the EP vote results in case of this regulation. Although it's marked as adopted on the EUR-LEX website, none of the related votes I could find on VoteWatch ended up ...
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How does Estonia calculate the date of their parliamentary election?

The Estonian Constitution has a narrowly defined date for its parliamentary election. Constitution of Estonia: Regular elections to the Riigikogu shall be held on the first Sunday in March of the ...
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In parliamentary republics, why can't the parliamentary election and the presidential election happen on the same day?

You would think that it is more efficient for both the parliamentary election and presidential election to happen at the same time so voters don't become fatigued with politics. I'm curious if there ...
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What does it mean when a Constitution says the “Government” or the “Cabinet” has the power to dissolve the Parliament?

In some countries (e.g. Sweden), the power to dissolve the Parliament is explicitly vested in the Government (or "Cabinet" in other countries). In reality, how does a Cabinet actually order ...
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What is the ethnic composition of the two houses of the Dutch parliament?

The Dutch Parliament has two houses, the "first" (higher) and "second" (lower). How many of the members of each house are ethnically Dutch (for whatever reasonable definition of ...
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What are the possible steps for No. 10 to remove Julian Lewis from the position of chair of the Intelligence and Security Committee?

MP Grayling was defeated in the Prime Minister's attempt to make him the chair of the Intelligence and Security Committee today. I've seen speculation (unsourced) that the Prime Minister and Number 10 ...
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1answer
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Has AKP ever failed to pass any bill after losing majority in Turkish Parliament?

In the 2018 Turkish parliamentary election, Justice and Development Party (AKP) won 295 seats out of 600 and lost majority in the Turkish Parliament. On the other hand, the People's Alliance they ...
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1answer
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Why are there currently only 25 Lords Spiritual?

According to the Parliament.UK website, 26 bishops are granted places in the House of Lords. The membership of the House of Lords includes 26 Church of England Archbishops and Bishops who sit on an ...
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168 views

Must parliamentary democracies hold a vote of confidence when choosing its Prime Minister?

While many parliamentarian systems require the parliament to hold a vote to confirm its Prime Minister (e.g. Germany, Ireland, Finland), that is not always the case. Here are some examples: Denmark: ...
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1answer
134 views

How long has it taken each Prime Minister to appear in front of the Commons Liaison Committee?

On May 27th, Boris Johnson appeared before the Commons Liaison Committee, a Select Committee made up of the chairs of the other Select Committees. The UK parliament website describes the committee's ...
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Do MPs participating in the House of Commons virtually benefit from Parliamentary Privilege?

Parliamentary privilege refers to the lack of restrictions on what MPs and Lords can say in their respective Houses in Parliament; it grants them immunity from prosecution relating to statements made ...
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Does the Queen have the power to dissolve the UK parliament?

Half a year ago the prime minister asked the queen to suspend parliament and she approved. UK government queen suspend parliament Another new said Supreme Court said suspending parliament was ...
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Why is the British Chancellor allowed to drink alcohol in the House of Commons chamber?

On the parliament.uk site's information about the annual budget, it describes the tradition of "Despatch box drinks", where the Chancellor is afforded the privilege to drink alcohol at the despatch ...
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1answer
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What is the modern role of the Serjeant at Arms?

The parliament.uk website describes the Serjeant at Arms as the official responsible for keeping order within the Commons part of the parliamentary estate. The page describes various ceremonial ...
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1answer
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Why are staggered elections only used for upper parliamentary chambers?

In the Wikipedia list of legislative bodies which use staggered elections only upper chambers of national parliaments can be found. Why? Is there a reason why staggering the elections for the lower ...
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Why do most countries have so many members of parliament?

The US House of Representatives consists of 435 members; the UK parliament has 650 members; the Bangladesh Jatiya Sangsad has 300 members, etc. Why so many people? Anyone who's, e.g., tried to ...
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First non-elected person in line of succession for British Government or Parliament?

The US government has a defined order of succession should a catastrophic event take out many senior officials, but the British parliamentary system does not seem to have one. If the current Prime ...
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1answer
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In the UK parliament, how much of Prime Minister's Questions is pre-planned?

So I was watching PMQs today and realised that almost everyone, certainly the party leaders, refers to notes during their time to talk. Is the PM given a list of questions beforehand? However during ...
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If Parliament doesn't approve the use of most prerogative powers, where's the accountability?

Anne Dennett. Public Law Directions (1 ed 2019). p 269. 12.2.3 Royal prerogative The royal prerogative ‘encompasses the residue of powers which remain vested in the Crown, and they ...
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377 views

Is Samoa truly an elective monarchy?

I have read about how Samoa was created as an elective monarchy when it became independent in 1962. However, from what I read, some question whether Samoa counts as a parliamentary republic (as the ...
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Is it unprecedented for a party to nominate someone from an opposing party to the House of Lords?

Labour leader Jeremy Corbyn has nominated former Speaker of the House of Commons John Bercow, who was previously a Conservative, to the House of Lords for the dissolution honours list. Prime Minister ...
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UK Parliament Act Usage (Lords v Commons)

Is there a limit to the number of times that a bill can be bounced between the Commons and the Lords before the Commons are allowed to use the Parliament Act?
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How are levelling seats allocated in Scandinavian elections?

In Scandinavian countries such as Denmark and Sweden, their parliaments tend to be comprised of district seats (allocated based on vote count within the district) and levelling seats (allocated based ...

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