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24

California has something like this, though it's not a nation (although it is bigger than most). The California Constitution was amended in 2004 and 2014 to create a Budget Stabilization Account (BSA), or "rainy day fund". After the modifications in 2014, the amendment: requires lawmakers to set aside 1.5 percent of General Fund revenues each year for the ...


16

Many countries have sovereign wealth funds in which they put their surpluses. Using these funds have several advantages: Clearly separates the budget funds from the surplus. Helps to shield the budget from variations in the income, specially if a significant part of the income is due to a single economic activity. Limits political interference in how the ...


9

Actually Germany might fit because various public agencies can and do keep reserves. Going into the reserves is automatic once unemployment claims go up and insurance premiums go down (they're tied to income). When the shortfall is significant, there are calls to balance it from the general budget, but the reserves are used first. In 2019 the unemployment ...


7

The german debt brake, as you have already suspected, is indeed the example you are looking for, as it was created precisely for that purpose. Let me quote from the german constitution : "The budgets of the Federation and the Länder shall, in principle, be balanced without revenue from credits. The Federation and Länder may introduce rules intended to ...


5

The Swiss "Schuldenbremse" does exactly this. Article 126 of the Constitution: The Confederation shall maintain its income and expenditure in balance over time. The ceiling for total expenditure that is to be approved in the budget is based on the expected income after taking account of the economic situation. Exceptional financial requirements ...


5

Sweden has exactly that, it is called överskottsmålet (literally surplus target). There is a legal requirement that the governmental budget should run with a surplus over an economic cycle. From the early 90s until 2007, that number was 2 % of GDP, in 2007 it was decreased to 1 % and since last year it is ⅓ %. If you look at the Swedish public debt in the ...


2

There is no payment schedule as such - we can see from the US statements of account published by the WHO here, and available (for the US) back to 2012, that payments over the last 8 years have been made at fairly random intervals, and never before the payment's due date. The last payments made by the US were in January 2020, roughly a third of which went ...


1

I'm pretty sure that nearly all countries have that hidden sack for a bad day. Russian equivalent of it is Stabilization Fund with a very simple rule: when the price for Urals oil exceeds the set cut-off price, money goes to that fund. when the price for Urals oil hits lower than cut-off price, money may be used to fill budget deficit. That cut-off price ...


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