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63

The 2% goal for defense spending of all NATO countries originates from the Wales Summit of 2014. However, the people who made that commitment are heads of governments, many of which don't actually have the authority to make budgeting decisions. This includes the German Chancellor. The Bundestag (German parliament) which actually has that authority never ...


48

Absolute and relative amounts Germany has come much closer to the 2% goal due to the COVID crisis -- the GDP went down, the defense budget stayed the same, so the percentage went up. Similarly, good years reduced the percentage without any defense cuts. Rejection of war as a means of policy. Germany has spent 40 years at the frontline of the Cold War, a war ...


25

The main factor has to be the fear of public debt and symbolic importance of balanced budgets (schwarze Null) in the German political discourse. The notion that the state should avoid building up debt and strive towards a balanced budget every single year plays an oversize role in the way the German media and public judge many issues. That's not the case in ...


24

California has something like this, though it's not a nation (although it is bigger than most). The California Constitution was amended in 2004 and 2014 to create a Budget Stabilization Account (BSA), or "rainy day fund". After the modifications in 2014, the amendment: requires lawmakers to set aside 1.5 percent of General Fund revenues each year ...


23

These Authorizations are how Congress tells NASA what to do. The bill is not "required" because if a new one isn't passed, there's no change in the orders the agency has from Congress. The bill was introduced because the sponsors want to give new directions to the agency and it is being deliberated and modified because all the Congresspeople who need to ...


17

Two reasons. First, because there's simply no internal pressure to massively increase defense spending (over 50% in 10 years) in Germany - other answers cover that part in detail and from different angles. Also, for historical reasons the other European NATO powers do not apply external pressure to make Germany take the top spot when it comes to military ...


16

Many countries have sovereign wealth funds in which they put their surpluses. Using these funds have several advantages: Clearly separates the budget funds from the surplus. Helps to shield the budget from variations in the income, specially if a significant part of the income is due to a single economic activity. Limits political interference in how the ...


10

For historical reasons I won't go into here, Germany and its neighbours are very wary indeed of "big military" in Teutonic hands. For the last 70 years German schools (at least in the West), the press and public bodies have tried to make Germans more pacifist than they were before. They have succeeded to a great extent. So any increase in defence ...


10

As of 2014, the rule was that the previous annual budget would be carried over. It's unlikely that this rule will have changed in the intervening period. Source: BBC News


10

Actually Germany might fit because various public agencies can and do keep reserves. Going into the reserves is automatic once unemployment claims go up and insurance premiums go down (they're tied to income). When the shortfall is significant, there are calls to balance it from the general budget, but the reserves are used first. In 2019 the unemployment ...


8

Here are some details on what got cut this year from the CDC (note: there were cuts in the previous Trump years as well) Among its proposals for CDC, the White House budget calls for a more than $236 million cut to chronic disease prevention and health promotion, a $146 million cut for the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, a more than ...


7

The Chancellor is allowed to do this as a matter of tradition, as the OP's link says. There's also a practical reason: the Budget speech is often long and complex, and a boost to their morale during the process is reasonable. Many of the details of operation of the UK parliament are traditions, rather than written rules. The tradition goes back to at least ...


7

The german debt brake, as you have already suspected, is indeed the example you are looking for, as it was created precisely for that purpose. Let me quote from the german constitution : "The budgets of the Federation and the Länder shall, in principle, be balanced without revenue from credits. The Federation and Länder may introduce rules intended to ...


6

There are specific restrictions imposed by the EU, though most of these are based on historical taxation. Since 2001 sanitary products have been subject to VAT at a reduced rate of 5% The BBC covered this in a reality check around the time of the Brexit Referendum. Reality Check verdict: EU rules mean the UK cannot reduce VAT on goods and services below 15%,...


5

Is there some actual significance to these 10-year periods? Yes, it's the law. 2 U.S. Code § 933. (d) OMB PAYGO scorecards (1) In general OMB shall maintain and make publicly available a continuously updated document containing two PAYGO scorecards displaying the budgetary effects of PAYGO legislation as determined under section 639 of ...


5

The Swiss "Schuldenbremse" does exactly this. Article 126 of the Constitution: The Confederation shall maintain its income and expenditure in balance over time. The ceiling for total expenditure that is to be approved in the budget is based on the expected income after taking account of the economic situation. Exceptional financial requirements ...


5

Sweden has exactly that, it is called överskottsmålet (literally surplus target). There is a legal requirement that the governmental budget should run with a surplus over an economic cycle. From the early 90s until 2007, that number was 2 % of GDP, in 2007 it was decreased to 1 % and since last year it is ⅓ %. If you look at the Swedish public debt in the ...


5

Yes, it is just one piece of legislation On December 21, Congress passed the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2021 (CAA) – a single legislative vehicle for a long-awaited COVID-related fiscal relief package, an omnibus appropriations act, and a tax extenders package. The stimulus itself is in division M and N of the CAA 2021. The somewhat odd thing about ...


4

The background is the defense committee's report that concluded that the security situation has worsened, mainly due to Russia. There is also a risk that China grows stronger, hence the US might need to focus west rather than east. Read more on Swedish Wikipedia So based on the report, all the parties wanted to increase funding, the question being how much. ...


4

Does the US account for inter-generational equity/imbalances when producing fiscal policy? Bottom-line. No. A central figure in promoting inter-generational accounting is Laurence J. Kotlikoff. The website, The Intergenerational Financial Obligations Reform Act, is a letter by Kotlikoff urging passage of the INFORM Act, which "requires the ...


3

Because these contributions are targeted specific Programmes and activities, and these Programmes are usually not constantly running. The WHO document, Voluntary contributions by fund and by contributor, 2018 (PDF, page 6) shows the following categories of contributions by the US: Core voluntary contributions account — $0 Voluntary contributions — core — $...


3

The World Bank seems to have military spending as a percentage of GDP for very country, including the US since year 1960:


3

This answer is untimely, but below are the relevant sites, at the Federal level, and Municipal level (for at least some States). Various award (or other) IDs are included on the various sites, but there seems to be no consistency on either. Federal System for Award Management: SAM.gov Example contract opportunity: Commercial Destination Development in Low ...


2

There are several reason that projections are over 10 years. The primary reason is that many initiatives take several years to implement, so using a 10 year period can more accurately capture the effects. For example, building a four lane bridge takes years of planning and construction, and will likely cost billions. After it's built their are possible tolls ...


2

There is no payment schedule as such - we can see from the US statements of account published by the WHO here, and available (for the US) back to 2012, that payments over the last 8 years have been made at fairly random intervals, and never before the payment's due date. The last payments made by the US were in January 2020, roughly a third of which went ...


1

I'm pretty sure that nearly all countries have that hidden sack for a bad day. Russian equivalent of it is Stabilization Fund with a very simple rule: when the price for Urals oil exceeds the set cut-off price, money goes to that fund. when the price for Urals oil hits lower than cut-off price, money may be used to fill budget deficit. That cut-off price ...


1

What are the current House's bill reconciliation rules regarding deficit increases? Budget Enforcement Procedures: House Pay-As-You-Go (PAYGO) Rule, Updated August 12, 2019. Actions in the 116 th Congress At the beginning of the 116th Congress, in adopting the rules of the House, the new Democratic majority reinstituted the PAYGO rule, replacing the ...


1

Why even have "PAYGO rules", if it's mandated by law anyway? Because the House (and Senate) legislate under their own rules. The statutory requirements in PAYGO are expressed in terms of those rules. Budget Enforcement Procedures: House Pay-As-You-Go (PAYGO) Rule, Updated August 12, 2019. The House PAYGO rule exists alongside similar PAYGO ...


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