21

The possession of an apostasy certificate does not confer any advantages in Poland. None whatsoever. One may say it actually puts the apostate in a disadvantage, as the process of obtaining the certificate can be quite unpleasant (it depends on the priest taking the apostasy statement - some take it matter-of-factly, some are downright abusive and pile up ...


16

Anti-union laws generally make it harder for: Unions to form, by allowing employers to discriminate against unionised workers, or requiring onerous processes to be followed for the formation of a recognised union, or not requiring employers to recognise and negotiate with a union even when it represents the majority of workers. Unions to operate, by not ...


15

If the Democrats get rid of the filibuster to pass voting rights can the next congress repeal these voting rights with a simple majority? The next Congress? Probably not. The next Congress runs from January 2023 to January 2025, during which Biden will still be President. Even assuming the Republicans win both houses of the legislature, they'll need to have ...


15

States tend to restrict freedom of speech for several reasons: Prevent harm to individuals by defaming speech (insults, defamation) Prevent harm to individuals by malicious misinformation (fraud, false advertising or the classic example of "shouting fire in a crowded theater") Prevent harm to the values of society or to the development of minors ...


13

In Germany (and a few other countries), if you belong to any of a certain number of recognised religious denominations, and you declare this when you register your residence (as legally required), then you are eligible to pay church tax (Kirchensteuer). Apocryphally, I've heard accounts of non-religious people who have registered themselves, in good faith (...


9

Election fraud is vanishingly rare in all U.S. states. The evidence in support of this assertion is overwhelming. The conservative Heritage Foundation identifies 1,340 instances of election fraud in the entire United States over forty years, at multiple levels of government (from 1982 to 2021), in a country where the popular vote in the most recent ...


6

The authorities have released these statements in response to the new evidence presented by Malcom X's family lawyers: Malcolm X's three daughters, along with Wood's family and high-profile Civil Rights attorney Ben Crump, are asking for the murder investigation to be re-opened in light of the new evidence. [...] Three Nation of Islam members were convicted ...


6

Yes, they can because that is how congress works, any bill passed by a simple majority can be repealed by a simple majority. All bills can be passed with a simple majority, the filibuster has nothing to do with passing a bill. It is just a procedure that is designed to hold up the vote on a bill by using debate. The problem is with the modern filibuster ...


4

The question is particularly about Poland, but also in general about Western Christian denominations. Many denominations, such as Jehovah's Witnesses and the LDS church (Mormons), have outreach programs that periodically target "lapsed" members with efforts to get them to rejoin their local congregation. Officially withdrawing membership is the ...


4

I will just give the partial answer for denmark, and thus mostly pro-union laws. Trade union fees are tax exempt. Unions are given the administration of some unemployment benefits, meaning they can use that to build a big organisation. (this is a little more complex) There is no minimum wage. (note 1) There is a special court for union disputes with ...


4

The full court opinion (83 pages) can be found here. It identifies five provisions of a single omnibus election law, 2013 N.C. Sess. Laws 381, which are found to be discriminatory: a "change in accepted photo IDs is of particular note: the new ID provision retained only those types of photo ID disproportionately held by whites and excluded those ...


3

Regarding your question whether the phrase "surgical precision" is an explicit part of the ruling: it is. See page 11 for the full context: Before enacting that law, the legislature requested data on the use, by race, of a number of voting practices. Upon receipt of the race data , the General Assembly enacted legislation that restricted voting ...


3

I don't get this reasoning. In a place like Georgia, which thinks of itself as traditionally Republican, it was a dead heat for the 2020 Potus race, Biden narrowly won Georgia by a margin of 0.23% and 11,779 votes. From the point of view of an urban voter in Georgia, every vote counts, even if they believe it is being suppressed in a rural county. And the ...


3

Off the top of my head, here are several: (pro) Union representatives on the board. Germany. Special roles for trade unions in government negotiations, even when a trade union isn't represented in a given company. France, Partenaires Sociaux (see Gilles' comment). (pro) Need to belong to the union in order to hold covered jobs for a unionized company. A ...


3

Including the prior provided answer along with key commentary on this answer: It looks like the Democrats can get rid of the filibuster to pass voting rights. The next congress could repeal this law with a simple majority unless there is a presidential veto. This seems to indicate that voting rights would last at least until the next presidential election. ...


3

What is legally possible is irrelevant. Once the filibuster is removed there is no likelihood of a subsequent Senate, either Democrat or Republican trying to reinstate it. In 2013 the Demcrats removed the filibuster for Judicial appointments below the Supreme Court and Republicans objected. After becoming that majority party in 2016 no move to restore this ...


2

In theory, yes, if Republicans win a simple majority in both Houses of Congress as well as the presidency, they could then repeal this law with a simple majority. A repeal is just another law that says the previous law is no longer valid, and so the rules would be the same for it as for any other law. However, there is a wrinkle. The purpose of the voting ...


2

At this point an answer is of historical interest, but it doesn't have a lot of immediate salience or demand a swift investigation. Suppose that anyone actively involved in making decisions in the original plot (if there was one) was 25 years old or older at the time, i.e. born in 1940 or earlier. The youngest individual involved in now age 80 or older, and ...


2

Just so it's said, the concept of 'districts' — like many features of US politics — is founded in an 18th century context where social and geographical mobility was low, and the population was naturally (generationally) segregated into cultural or community-oriented enclaves. If you look at old cities around the US (Boston, Baltimore, New York City, etc.), ...


2

According to Michelle Alexander, a legal scholar and a civil rights litigator, one reason for sich a policy is to disenfranchise the black population. She claims it is a form of gerry-mandering by removing the black male population from the citizenry and into the ranks of the incarcerated. She makes this claim in her book, The New Jim Crow: Mass ...


2

There is no simple answer to this. The idea is obvious enough that movements existed in almost every country. But for practical purposes, national movements gravitated on what aspect was lacking most in their territory and best aligned with the political views otherwise. The feminists inside the socialist movement can be said to have properly argued for this ...


2

The are many explanations but from a macro perspective, in my Opinion, War is the best explanation. In Most countries that introduced women's suffrage the biggest reason why they did so was the two world wars. UK, Canada, and the USA had a Cultural shift during the first world war since a lot of women had to replace men in the workforce. Germany and Austria ...


1

In other words, a restriction that's not biased, but one that may be interpreted independently of the subject. In the context of US First Amendment law, the phrase you are searching for is "viewpoint neutral." American free speech law distinguishes between three* types of restrictions on free speech: Viewpoint discrimination: One viewpoint is ...


1

Well, one good reason is that jailing might be used as a punitive measure out of all proportion to the offence. This is what Michelle Alexander implies in her book, The New Jim Crow, where she claims incarceration has become a tool in disenfranchising the black male population. She also points out that one current trends around a third of the black male ...


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