108

Clitoridectomies are not equivalent to male circumcision. Clitoridectomies are equivalent to removal of the glans (the head of the penis, which contains most of the nerve endings that produce sexual pleasure). It is possible to do an equivalent of circumcision on a female: i.e., removing the clitoral hood which normally covers the clitoris, leaving the ...


86

I'm not terribly sure that leaving outliers aside (both Trump and Macron are such) there's that much of a difference, historically, between the major European countries and the US. The Economist ran a short article on this in 2017, the best part of which is this graph: They observe than in all four countries the gap (between the median population age and ...


54

Do European politicians typically do this too (Emphasis mine) Politicians who sport a pronoun in their profile are not typical in the US. I'm struggling to imagine how they might be more common in Europe. If we consider the Democratic candidates for 2020 as a sample, only Warren, Booker, Castro, and Steyer have a pronoun tucked into their Twitter profiles ...


54

Arguably, the United States of America has. Sort of. It's confusing. The federal government, or rather the president and some of his cabinet, has largely left the response up to individual states. It's less of a conclusion, and more a result of chaos and denial at the Federal level. It is difficult to write this up in a neutral tone, to find sources with ...


51

No. While it is hard to prove a negative, wherever two people come into conflict, either the stronger will come to dominate the weaker, or both will defer to an even stronger power, ie a government. Consider the usual examples of anarchist societies such as The Paris Commune, Nestor Makhno's "free territory" all had systems of government. These might be "...


39

Iceland during the Icelandic Commonwealth period is itself one of the closest examples. For a lengthy period of time in the Middle Ages, it had an island-wide legislative/judicial body but not an executive branch. The legislative/judicial body would decree when laws were violated by someone to maintain basic honoring of contract, property and personal ...


36

There is a lot of confusion regarding the French Gendarmerie, fueled by descriptions like “military police” or “military force with law enforcement duty” which are technically correct but do not fully reflect the nature and tactics of the force. Its members are indeed military officers, which has some legal consequences (trade unions are strictly forbidden, ...


34

Interesting question. I compiled a partial answer for Sweden. Swedish is rather similar to English with regards to pronouns and genders. I assumed that if there where any pronouns on twitter pages they would be most common for politicians in the Miljöpartiet (Greens), or Vänsterpartiet (Left). Working from the list of people in the Riksdag we have Party ...


31

It takes time for things to change. 200 years ago slavery was legal. 50 years ago genital mutilation was acceptable, and so was electroshock therapy for gay people. Today those things sound like atrocities. Perhaps in another 100 years male circumcision will likewise be condemned, and (as far as religious beliefs are concerned) it may well become illegal to ...


27

Arguably, Russia did. Traditional Russian response to any problem in the last 20 years is to do everything on federal level to be able to praise V. V. Putin. All decision making process is centralized. However, nCoV pandemic with its restrictions of public freedoms and economic activity seems to be too toxic for that, so it's one of very rare cases where ...


26

Short Answer - no Slightly longer answer It is really dependent on your definition of anarchy. For most of human history, societies have been organised without the existence of a centralised bureaucracy. To quote Robert L. Carneiro from "Political Expansion as an Expression of the Principle of Competitive Exclusion" (1978) For 99.8 percent of human ...


21

Warning - Polish-centric answer: TLDR: No one tried this in Poland, it would be politically a bad move and linguistically total horror In Polish language we indeed have genders: "kubek" (mug) is "he", "klawiatura" (keyboard) is "she", "drzewo" (tree) is "it". To make everything more complicated "dziecko" (kid) is "it", "osoba" (person) is "she". Gender ...


18

The question presented is "on what dimensions/issues does the Republican party differs substantially from right-wing parties in Europe?" Short Answer An answer to this question has to start from the point of recognizing a false premise in the question. The U.S. has one viable party of the left, the Democratic Party, and one viable party of the ...


17

Sharia law is a big and complex subject. A significant number of college students in Saudi Arabia and in Iran, for example, would have it has a college major and pursue graduate studies in it as well. This post focuses on some of the better known and most distinctive features of it from the perspective of an outsider. Needless to say, given the limitations ...


17

New Zealand Background: Police in New Zealand do not typically carry firearms on their person, despite a longstanding stated desire from the police association to do so. Since 2012 pistols and semi-automatic rifles are stored in lock boxes in patrol cars, which may be accessed at the officer's discretion, but they must advise their command if they are going ...


16

This answer is going to be a bit circular put a Pew poll found that the US public disapproves of adultery more than the Europeans do. And there's a fair inference from that that the US public cares more about such matters (like adultery) in politicians' private lives than the European public does. (There might be even polls on this explicitly, but I don't ...


14

The UK has a GDP of $2.91 trillion (PPP). Japan has a GDP of $5.42 trillion. (source). The UK spends about 7% of the world's $1.36 trillion on pharma R&D, or about $95 billion. Japan spends 13%, or $177 billion. (source) So the UK spends 3.26% of GDP on pharma research. Japan spends 3.26% on pharma research. There is no significant difference in ...


13

Someone has to write the test. The United States, in particular, has a long and sordid history of imposing "literacy tests" on voters. These were used to disenfranchise ex-slaves (and black people more generally) after the civil war (and continuing on for a century thereafter). The general approach was to exempt white people from the test, while requiring ...


13

The notion of right or left is rather fuzzy in practice. There's some truth in the statement that led to your question with respect to a few policy aspects; not so much with respect to others. For instance, consider the UK's single payer health care system. The Conservatives know it is political suicide for them to seek to privatizing it. The US equivalent ...


13

Part of the answer may be that the US constitution does not allow the president to be younger than 35 years old. And there are also minimum ages for congress.


13

A (currently WIP) study entitled Militarization and Perceptions of Law Enforcement in the Developing World: Evidence from a Conjoint Experiment in Mexico by Flores-Macías, G., & Zarkin, J. looks at this factor in Mexico. This study uses data from an image-based conjoint experiment in a nationally representative survey, in which respondents were presented ...


12

In addition to Ted's excellent answer as to why female circumcision is significantly different, you'd have a problem with multiple religious groups that practice it as a rite. Orthodox Jews are directly commanded to perform it According to the Torah (Genesis 17: 9-14), Abraham was commanded by God to circumcise himself, all male members of his household, ...


11

I can give some information about the Italian lockdown. Source: the FAQ from the Italian ministry of internal affairs. What you can do go to work (any kind EDIT: on March 21, as an additional restriction, "non-essential" businesses were stopped). Telecommuting / remote working is recommended when possible. travel for work (for instance, plumbers can go ...


10

In the United Kingdom, the process for nominating a judge to the Supreme Court starts with the Court itself forming a commission, almost entirely made up of legal professionals (judges, barristers, etc.) Once the Commission has consulted those it is required to consult, it will make a recommendation to the Lord Chancellor (who is usually also the Secretary ...


10

Overview Have other countries with similar supreme courts found a way to reduce this polarization within the court? It turns out that this doesn't have a simple mechanical answer. Naively similar systems with common legal roots often work very differently in practice. And, there are quite a few factors that influence the outcome. In general, the factors ...


9

To answer your question, one would have to look at formal and informal legal immunity. That is, is it legally possible for a citizen to sue/charge a police officer, and is it practically possible? Another issue is the difference between a civil lawsuit, filed by a citizen, and a criminal charge filed by the prosecutor after credible complaints by a citizen. ...


8

There is a body of work in anthropology that describes anarchist societies. One of the most famous works in this tradition is "Fragments of an Anarchist Anthropologist". Although the author is principally interested in a theoretical argument, he uses some case studies of the Tsimhety culture in Madagascar. Based on their population alone (about 700,000 - 1 ...


8

The question is titled "On what dimensions does the current Republican party differ substantially from the right-wing parties in Europe?" and links to a column by Nicholas Kristof. However, the Kristof column doesn't make comparisons with Europe in any detail; it links to a separate 2019 interactive graphics article by Sahil Chinoy that does this. ...


8

TLDR: The perception of MC (male circumcision) and FGC (female genital cutting) in the West are skewed by familiarity with MC (particularly in the US), and unfamiliarity with FGC which is viewed as a barbaric "mutilating" practice practised by "outsiders" and "savages" in Africa. The common conception of FGC as a mutilating ...


8

As with anything involving an assessment of Quality the role of the assessor cannot be neglected, and so must be subjective. We can ask the same question of almost anything: can we objectively measure the quality of a loaf of bread? Sure we can measure the density, protein:carb ratio, the degree of caramelization in the crust and so on. We can devise a ...


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