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-12

First you must look in what country lived Karl Max and Frederick Engels. Who is writing the story and for who? If you look closer at capitalism you will see that is actually communism because the ownership is shared between people. In capitalism like in communism the company/corporation owners are the shareholders (or stockholders) of the company/...


-3

Well first off, at least some (if not many) people who spend a lot of time arguing about this stuff on social media probably aren't rigorously using these concepts. But the basic idea is extremely in-line with this quote: "First, I must confess that over the last few years I have been gravely disappointed with the white moderate. I have almost reached ...


29

The core of Marx's critique of capitalism was that it would inevitably produce a vicious cycle in which the rich got richer and the poor got poorer. Marx had a deterministic vision of the process of history, in which impersonal economic processes like this would inevitably lead to certain results. As a result of this process, he believed that there would be ...


46

The Wikipedia page for Bourgeoise is informative, and worth the read. Strictly speaking, there was no equivalent of middle, upper, or lower classes (in the modern usage of the terms) prior to perhaps the 17th century. The Bourgeoise were the wealthiest segment of commoners under feudal aristocracies, all the way back to the 11th century: tradesmen, merchants,...


2

I think it is necessary to distinguish some points. Mostly definitions. They are somewhat simplified to show how they are applicable here. Capitalism: An economic system where those with money/material resources, called capital, control the means of production, the tools used to create things. Socialism: An economic system where the means of production are ...


1

I think a good example is the Cioloş cabinet which was arguably entirely made out of technocrats. A few of the members were working abroad (e.g. European Commission-related jobs) before accepting a ministry position, so technically speaking they came from another country to assume office.


1

As William Walker III pointed out in his answer, that depends very much on the laws of the country. Let me add some individual data points: In the EU, citizens of other EU countries can run for certain elective public offices if they meet residency requirements. But then, the EU is more than just a free trade area. To complicate things, cabinet-level ...


3

Perhaps. It wouldn't happen. The informal norms in favor of appointing only politicians as ministers is a strong one across these systems. They'd make someone like that an appointee or a consultant, rather than a minister. Milton Friedman did something similar once in Chile.


2

This will depend entirely on the law of the land in the given country. In the United States, for example, you can't serve in Congress or the Senate (our analog to a parliament) unless you've been a Citizen for 7+ years. What's far more likely is that such outside experts are likely to be hired in a consulting role, or appointed to senior positions of ...


8

The fundamental principle of 'fairness' in Liberal society (for better or worse) is that a man should own that which he invests labor in. That goes straight back to John Locke in his "Two Treatises of Government". Locke was trying to establish property as a 'natural' right of human beings, such that unjustly removing property from someone was as ...


5

Does the socialist fundamentally disagree with the capitalist about what constitutes a fair resource distribution This is a somewhat bad, black and white framing. I dare say there's no such thing as capitalist ideology, although I suppose if you take some "laissez faire" adherents, you could get such a dichotomy. On the other hand you can find ...


4

Break Bitcoin: As mentioned in your link, nearly 80% of bitcoin mining occurs in China. If the authorities were able to persuade nearly 2 in 3 of those miners to join a pool controlled by these authorities they would then have control over the blockchain, called a 51% attack. This would allow them to for example double spend bitcoins, control who can make ...


10

Insofar as the concern is about carbon impacts related to cryptomining (which is not an unfounded concern), there are several policy interventions which could either help to de-link crypto-supply and carbon emissions and/or reduce demand for cryptocurrency, thereby reducing the price and dis-incentivizing supply: Very Direct Method: Criminalize ...


0

Mathematics research is compared to particle physics research is very cheap. They don't have to build large accelerators encircling small cities. Pure mathematics research is helpful to the larger scientific community given how often mathematics is implicated in scientific research. Here's a simple example: Category theory arose from questions of covariance ...


2

The other answers have all made good points. A few other additional points: Funding mathematics employs mathematicians and the grant money that they spend has further economic impact in the community as a result of the "multiplier effect." Creating jobs and boosting the economy with spending is something that typically makes politicians happy and ...


33

You can find revenue breakdowns online, as this is generally all public information. It mainly only gets confusing depending on how the breakdown is done and the names given to them (e.g. sales tax, excise tax, ad valorem tax; are they all grouped together, or what?) Texas Here's some breakdowns of the 2004 state revenues. Approximately a third of their ...


12

It will vary case to case, but there's a number of available revenue streams for U.S. states that have no income taxes (personal, corporate, or both): Property taxes, as you suspect, are often higher but these are levied by municipalities and tend to make up for what would otherwise be funding flowing from the State-level government to the municipalities for ...


3

Chavez and Maduro's incompetence because the sanctions were only put in place after things got bad (one could argue that before fracking-led energy independence the US was more willing to turn a blind eye on bad behaviors within an oil producing country). 2014 - first protests that trigger sanctions. due to the country's high levels of urban violence, ...


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