29

First, the mandate to Donald Trump, granted in November, 2016 ends at Noon January 20, 2021. No need for him to do anything. The Twentieth Amendment to the Constitution deals with the situation where no person has yet qualified to be elected President for the term starting at 12:00:01 January 20, 2021: Section 3. If, at the time fixed for the beginning of ...


29

There are two obvious reasons. I'll refer to the US specifically, but I would imagine other countries are fairly similar. First, the historic. Before modern transport & communications, the election process could take weeks or months. California became a US state in 1850, when it could take more than four weeks to travel from there to Washington (or ...


18

There are two basic reasons for the 'lame-duck' period between the date new officials are elected and the date they take office: To allow election results to be contested should evidence of fraud or malfeasance arise To ensure an orderly transition of power, by giving new officials time to move residences and acclimate themselves to the duties and powers of ...


17

In countries with a President fulfilling the role of joint head of state and government, these transition periods are generally written into their constitutions - although the US is certainly on the lengthy side. To give a couple of particularly long transition periods which have the potential to beat the US maximum of 78 days: Article 274 of the Dominican ...


16

The text of Article I states (with my emphasis): ... The actual Enumeration shall be made within three Years after the first Meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent Term of ten Years, in such Manner as they shall by Law direct. So, Congress may, by passing legislation, order a re-enumeration of the USA at any time. The ...


14

In most countries, the head of government doesn't actually resign before the election is called. Instead, the Prime Minister retains his post during the election campaign, albeit in a caretaker capacity (i.e. his powers are rather limited). If he loses the election (specifically if another party gets a majority of seats in Parliament), he resigns shortly ...


12

Usually, it is because the mechanisms for triggering elections are not the same between the two. Presidential term is generally a fixed number of years, and unless the incumbent dies/resigns/otherwise leaves office, this fixed cycle is constant. On the other hand, a Parliamentary term is not as fixed. Generally, the Parliament will have the power to declare ...


10

This would profit from a country tag. In Germany, where I live, parliament and president cannot be elected at the same time because the electoral college ("Bundesversammlung") that elects the president includes all sitting members of the parliament (which means they have to take office before the presidential election can happen). Or, to put it ...


9

Cold winters, planting/harvesting seasons in spring and early fall, and the convenience to travel to the polling stations seems to be the answer. I would add vacation season in summer, too. This article sums it up very well. It is about the US, but most factors seem to apply to other countries as well: But why a Tuesday in November? The answer stems from ...


8

Question: Four years after 2016 election, it hasn't changed that the majority of non-college-degree white people support Trump's reelection, while the majority of college-degree white people don't. Why does having a college degree or not make a difference among white Americans? Short Answer: In the US, people without College degrees face, on average, a ...


7

Yes, but... It's not actually two-and-a-half months The President is not elected early-November, but mid-December by the Electoral College. This is similar to parliaments who choose a prime minister. As extreme examples, Belgium went 18 months without a PM in 2010. Spain went without a PM for 7 months last year. Practically, the future US President is ...


7

In Germany, the Chancellor is basically in office until a sufficient majority of the parliament elects a successor (it has to be a majority of all members, not just those present and voting). This can happen very quickly, before/without new elections, or it can take a very long time if a coalition has to be formed. (This is a summary, I don't think you want ...


7

What underpins this difference? Does the US legal framework provide more opportunity for such challenges? Is the US electoral process more amenable to fraud? Or is there simply more appetite for litigation in the US? I'll add a few fairly important basic points which the other answers don't explicitly mention. There are many reasons litigation is more ...


5

Looking at it from the United States side I think it is for a few reasons. First and most importantly people are elected for a set term in office if someone was replaced as soon as the election was confirmed that would mean an officer holder could serve a longer or shorter term depending on how long it takes to confirm the vote each cycle. This is important ...


5

I'm not too sure, but there's a Russian source and Wikipedia page that explain this nicely. Basically, if there is 1 candidate in the type of election you are talking about, an "Against All" column would be added to the ballot. The 1 candidate would need to win an absolute majority, otherwise a new election would be called in 3 months. Direct quote ...


4

TL;DR Party elections would be held to select new candidate(s). Plus, election could be delayed by Congress (specially if both main candidates drop out). Here is an article exploring the case of President Trump or Biden dying of Covid-19 from the point of view of two experts. It says: Dr Richard H. Pildes, professor of Constitutional Law at New York ...


4

There are a lot of assumptions baked into this behavior and it may not always achieve the intended effect. Firstly, a single person doing this is unlikely to skew the polling result. Most respectable pollsters strive to get a large and randomized group of participants precisely to diminish outliers cases like these. Unless you organize a massive coordinated ...


4

Something like that has happened in Germany (link in German), on a small scale. Elderly residents in a retirement home got induced by the staff to vote a certain way. In another case in Germany (link in German), immigrants who could not speak the language were asked to request absentee ballots. (For municipal elections, any EU citizen can vote.) In both ...


4

For countries in your list (like Ireland), there are two primary reasons why the elections would be held at different times for the president vs the parliament: The parliament can generally choose to have elections early should something like a government breakdown, or more favourable elections conditions for government parties occur To provide some level ...


3

Elected officials who continue to exercise power after an election causing someone else to win the offices in question is called a "lame duck". In parliamentary systems, there is usually an unwritten convention that lame duck officials act only in a care taking and emergency role, and don't make major decisions or start new initiatives. They are a &...


3

Fear of criticism of racial motivation Yes, and this phenomenon even has name. The theory of The Bradley effect proposes that some white voters who intend to vote for the white candidate would nonetheless tell pollsters that they are undecided or likely to vote for the non-white candidate. Fear of possible revenge Also, don't discount the simple fact that ...


3

Congress may pass laws to reappportion set the count of house seats and reapportion the states based on the Census when Congress cares to. Since 1929, there has been a "permanent apportionment" act so Congress has had no need to act to reapportion after subsequent Census enumerations. If you're looking for historical examples of a dramatic change ...


3

It has to do with Filipinos. They support Democrats much less than other Chinese or Indian Americans, who usually support Democrats because of their social and religious background. This is despite the fact that they do more now than in the past. This may have to do with generational change and children growing up among other Asian Americans. These make up a ...


3

One has to remember that the US presidential election is actually 55 mostly separate elections with varying rules concerning voter registration, permissibility of absentee voting, deadlines, and much more. Each of these 55 elections will provide a local winner and the number of local winners will determine the national winner. This results in generally three ...


2

First, the UK does have lawsuits over elections, e.g. the Vote Leave case: https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2018/sep/14/judges-brexit-vote-eu-referendum-vote-leave Second, this phenomenon is especially strong in the 2020 US election which has unprecedented election behavior (mail-in ballots) and a polarized county. Third, the US is a federal not ...


2

In Uruguay the president is typically elected the last Sunday of November (unless a candidate gets over 50% on the first round the last Sunday of October), while the inauguration is on March, 1st. That's three or four months plus a few days.


2

In general, there is a decent correlation between the margin of victory in the Senate primaries - in terms of the total number of votes - and the margin of victory in the Presidential election. However, it is questionable whether this metric is a good one to use when predicting the result, for the same reasons Joe W laid out in his answer to a related ...


2

In Pennsylvania, any candidate in an election may appoint up to two people per election district to be poll watchers, provided they are eligible voters in the county where they'd be watching. These poll watchers, as well as any other eligible voter or election officer, are able to challenge a voters 'qualifications', essentially a voter's proof of identity ...


2

Immigration is a major cause for the difference in voting. The reason for this is that immigrants (in this case South/Central Americans) often have lower educational levels then in the USA. So a person who paves roads for a living has more chances of losing his job towards cheaper labor from immigrants then for example a doctor or a lawyer. But besides the ...


1

When I was a local politician in a Western democracy (not the US), there was a situation where one of our observers at a polling count noticed a streak of postal ballots being verified where all of the addresses on the ballot papers were from the same retirement home, which housed large numbers of elderly people who had dementia and similar. All of the ...


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