6

In the UK this has happened 7 times since the introduction of the secret ballot: 1852, 1874, January 1910, December 1910, 1929, 1951 and February 1974. However the UK did not offer universal suffrage until 1928, so only the last three apply to a democratic system as we would understand the term today. For example in 1974, Labour won 11,645,616 votes, ...


6

While in centuries past, being openly opposed to democracy was well within the Overton window, these days it is generally not seen as acceptable. Most dictatorships at least pretend to be democratic; even North Korea styles itself the "Democratic People's Republic of Korea". However, each election has only one candidate, chosen by the Democratic Front for ...


4

This has happened in the United States five times in it's nearly 250 year history with the Electoral College (there is a possible sixth related to some funny counts in one state that would have flipped the 1960 election but it was ultimately conceded without any recounting). What's more, the Founding Fathers had intended that the U.S. citizens only vote ...


4

Numerous mechanisms have been proposed to address the various sources of short-termism ranging from youth quotas in representative assemblies to mandatory posterity/environment clauses in laws etc. Here's a summary table from a book on the topic (Institutions For Future Generations, OUP 2016). Whether they are practical and don't have other downsides... is ...


4

Using war to get support is known as the "Rally around the flag Effect." As per Wikipedia, The rally 'round the flag effect (or syndrome) is a concept used in political science and international relations to explain increased short-run popular support of the President of the United States during periods of international crisis or war. Because rally '...


3

Humans have a strong built-in tendency to work together in groups. However this social niceness has a mirror image on the dark side: one of the things that they are especially prone to working on is hurting people who are not in the group. Sociologists call this "In-group vs Out-group". Its also known as "Us vs Them". In a modern nation there are lots of ...


3

I will assume that winning an election means the ability to form a government and I will present a little frame challenger: Others have proportional parliamentary systems where the quirk in systems like the UK is designed out. (West) Germany has always used a proportional parliament system on a federal level and state level as far as I am aware. Votes ...


2

The system for using lists to fill the leveling seats (or "adjustment seats") varies per country. This answer summarises information from this document (PDF) published by the European Committee for Democracy Through Law in 2015. In particular, we examine the last column of the table beginning from page 2. Denmark (begins page 32) Candidates who have met a ...


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