45

There sure have been a few instances of this occurring. 2000 Election This's the one that many people still remember. Gore won the popular vote by 0.51% while Bush won the electoral college. The tight margin in Florida automatically triggered a recount. Ultimately, a court case stopped the recount and Bush became President. It has also occurred in the ...


35

Yes, Article 81 of the Macedonian constitution (found here in Macedonian, or here in English) provides that the successful candidate in a Presidential election is elected by majority vote, provided that more than 40% of registered voters participate. This used to be 50%, but was altered by the 31st amendment in 2009 to 40%. The provision in full: A ...


30

What you're describing sounds like a form of liquid democracy - described by Blum & Zuber (2016)1 as: a procedure for collective decision-making that combines direct democratic participation with a flexible account of representation. Its basic model consists of four components that can be stated as follows: All members of a political community that ...


24

The Russian Federation had minimum turnout requirements for presidential and Duma (parliamentary) elections until 2007, but they've since abolished the rule: Since 2007 the minimum turnout of 50 % for presidential and 25 % for Duma of the registered electorate was abolished. (Source: European Parliament) A number of countries in Europe and elsewhere ...


21

A minimum turnout is commonly used for referendums. See Referendums by country on Wikipedia, which has an entire column on minimum turnout. Sometimes this minimum is formulated as purely a minimum turnout, and sometimes as a minimum fraction of total electorate which must vote for a measure for it to pass. For example, in Romania a referendum is valid if ...


17

Grover Cleveland won the popular vote three elections in a row but was only president twice. That was 1884, 1888, and 1892. He is the only president to have served two non-consecutive terms. Every other two term president served consecutive terms. Cleveland also won the most consecutive popular votes to that point. Franklin Delano Roosevelt would ...


10

If 1000 votes were cast within a state, why would it continue counting them once a candidate has won 501? How do they know that 1000 votes total were cast if they didn't count them? The precincts report the total votes cast at the same time as they report the totals for each candidate. This would require multiple reporting steps. First, every precinct ...


9

Two of these examples were discussed in an American Political Science Review* article back in 1982. Canada and India are well-known counter-examples to Duverger's law. In an examination of 121 elections of which 30 were conducted under plurality rules ("winner take all"), 7 had significant numbers of votes for a third party. All 7 of those were in Canada. ...


6

Yes. Such a requirement is often called a quorum. I haven't heard of any in public elections (although other posters mentioned a few examples), but it is extremely common in smaller voting bodies, anything from Congressional Committees (not sure about House or Senate itself), corporate shareholder meetings down to homeowner's associations. The quorum rules ...


5

In much of the world, the common people fought long and hard not to be governed by kings and nobles. A principle and rallying call was "one man, one vote" (this was before women's franchise became generally accepted). Generally speaking, places without democracy are not very pleasant to live in, and what you are proposing is an oligarchy, specifically a ...


5

There is no general answer. In the USA the constitution only requires elections to the House and the Senate. It doesn't give details on the method of elections, though federal law requires that states don't use a proportional system. The UK has no written constitution, and the electoral system could be changed by Parliament, but (recent) convention would ...


5

This is called affirmative action. When politics realize that a certain demographic is discriminated for reasons which are beyond the control of politics, "Equal opportunity" is restored by giving that demographic an artificial advantage. Mandatory gender quotas are one way to ensure equal opportunity in areas where on gender is underrepresented. Now you ...


5

Two of the countries you mentioned have two major parties which take turns forming the government: Every prime minister in the history of Canada was from either the Liberal party or the Conservative party Every prime minister of the United Kingdom in the past 100 years was from either the Labour party of the Conservative party. Minor parties might get a ...


5

First-past-the-post systems are polarizing. Because of the advantages of tactical voting, most people concentrate on a popular candidate who is good enough. So parties build themselves around such candidates. Then the parties tend to be left in control of the nominating process that winnows down to two candidates per post. In the USA, this results in a ...


4

It's very important to note that the people that go out to the polls and place their votes are not actually voting for the president. They are telling their representatives who they want them to vote for. So it is totally possible and legal for voters to vote for candidate A but the representatives cast their vote for candidate B. In a way this happens all ...


4

The Boundary Commission presented their final report to Parliament in Sept 2018. The next stage is for the Government to create a statutory instrument from the findings and present it, unamended, to Parliament. Parliament can then approve or reject the changes through voting on the instrument. If approved, the changes will be applied at the next General ...


4

The answer is simple - because it is not fair. The bonus system is only used as a compromised system in the countries where there are no stable, traditional political parties and politics is run by charismatic, mostly populist leaders (like in Italy or Greece). In this case, it is almost impossible to make a coalition of 2 or 3 parties. This system, since ...


4

The phenomenon you're describing is often called the spoiler effect, where similar candidates in a plurality based race end up impeding each other. One common measure of whether a voting system is susceptible to this effect is the "independence of clones criterion", where the winner doesn't change if another option is added which is identical (or very ...


3

Something similar exists in New Zealand and has since 1996, where it is called a mixed member proportional representation system. It is also used in Bolivia (since 1994), in Lesotho (since 2002), in the federal parliament in Germany and some state parliaments in Germany, in the Scottish Parliament, and in the Welsh National Assembly. Variations on it were ...


3

There is no special protection from this law for any party or candidate, and the act provides for imprisonment for up to 3 years for a candidate who promotes feelings of religious hatred. When you look at the positions taken by parties, you will note that they are careful not to make direct appeals to voters by religion, caste or language. Thus the BJP (...


3

Does representativeness have to come at the cost of inherent complexity? Not necessarily. Direct democracy, where people vote directly on issues, is simple and perfectly representative. It comes at the cost of time though. People have to take the time to vote, and people really should take the time to familiarize themselves with the issues. The issues ...


3

This is a perfect example of why Equality and Fairness are not the same thing. Equality of outcomes is antithetical to Equality of Opportunity. The two cannot be reconciled. Given Philipp's answer, it is impossible to maintain fairness (true Equality of Opportunity) in the presence of supposedly compensatory factors such as affirmative action. Affirmative ...


2

FWIW, in response to @JohnRStrom, that's not quite accurate. Many groups used a variety of standards to determine who "really" won in Florida in 2000. Some counts using some standards showed Bush, but other counts using other standards showed Gore had, in fact, won. Sometimes the margins either way were in the hundreds or low thousands. In one case, it ...


2

Elections in the United States are rarely for a single issue. For example, the Presidential election also sees votes for Representatives, Senators, and often state and local office-holders. Since there are many issues on a single ballot, and since counting is usually automated, there's no reason to stop counting just because one candidate in one race has ...


2

Ranked choice/instant runoff voting could be useful here, although it is not perfectly ideal (and one could argue that no feasible election system can ever be truly ideal). In a ranked choice system, the "yes" vote would avoid being split between three implementation options if many favoring "yes" would prefer one of the other implementations over a "no." ...


1

I think this is sufficiently answered by wikipedia's comparison of electoral systems. To summarize, there are 22 different game theoretical criteria that election systems are desired to have. The more criteria fulfilled, the better, although each criteria may not be equally important. There are 15 different majoritarian, single-winner electoral systems ...


1

Just as a pure hypothetical: If you start with the states in increasing order of population, and assume half of each small population (+ 1) votes for one party, those votes ensure that all the state's electoral college votes go to that party. Continue this into larger and larger states, until you reach the magic number of 270 electoral college votes ...


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