88

Article 50 of the Treaties of the European Union (the article which governs leaving the EU) has a clause which explicitly mentions that rejoining the EU is possible after leaving it: If a State which has withdrawn from the Union asks to rejoin, its request shall be subject to the procedure referred to in Article 49. Article 49, in case you wonder, ...


59

By way of establishing some context, it's worth noting that this isn't just a squabble over which government has the authority to hold a referendum in Catalonia. The Madrid government's position is that not even it can grant independence, because the constitution directly prohibits it. Moreover, to amend the relevant article of the constitution would require ...


55

If the debt were to be transferred, it would be because of negotiations between Catalonia and Spain for Catalonia to take that debt on and at what level. It would seem reasonable to me for negotiators from Spain to ask for it, since supposedly the people of Catalonia might have contributed to it and since the Catalans are in essence asking Spain for ...


48

There is no formalised way for Scotland to leave the UK so for that to happen Parliament would have to agree because that is the supreme legislative body of the UK (Scotland has its own devolved parliament but that only has the powers granted to it by the UK parliament). So they can do nothing legally without the consent of Parliament.


39

It seems bleedingly obvious that having Catalonia and the rest of Spain vote differently on this issue would leave everybody with bad feelings. Nothing would be settled. And organising a referendum is precisely risking such an outcome, not as a mere possibility or in an opinion poll but in an officially sanctioned vote. Once you have an actual vote for ...


36

According to the The Ashgate Research Companion to Secession only 7 countries out of 89 surveyed had any explicit provisions for secession in their constitution: Austria, Ethiopia, France (overseas territories only), Saint Christopher and Nevis, Singapore, the USSR, Czechoslovakia, and [the Union of] Serbia and Montenegro (of 2003). Some scholars argue that ...


35

It would be a matter for discussion. When the Soviet Union broke up, Russia accepted the full foreign debt of the Soviet Union. This was restructured by the "Paris Club", and left Russia with a debt of about $60 billion. On the other hand, when Czechoslovakia split, the national property and national debt were shared, roughly in the ratio 2:1. This was a ...


34

This is a pretty good article summarizing the reasons for monarchist support in Australia. Allow me to pull out some quotes: The Royal family do lots of work for charity, and their high profile means they can bring media attention to important issues. For a lot of people having a Royal family is fun, people like reading about them in magazines, and in ...


34

The UK can absolutely reapply to the European Union if they so choose. The only impediment to a state applying for EU membership is what's called "the Copenhagen criteria" (and of course, they need to be in Europe). Essentially, the state has to be a democracy with civil liberties and a free market economy; the UK would easily pass. When politicians say the ...


32

The thing is: It does not matter what a government or a law says or pretend to say. If you look at the history, an absolute minority of independencies were "allowed" or "negotiated" between the parties (Czech Republic and Slovakia a rare instance), most are results of violent conflicts (Abkhazia, Ex-Yugoslavia, Crimea) or triggered a wave of violence (India/...


30

What has changed lately to increase their desire to be independent? This isn't actually how separatism works. It's not that they want independence now more than they did, say, fifty years ago. It's that they think they can get independence now. Fifty years ago, they would have faced suppression by the military. The rest of Europe would have had ...


28

To be allowed to apply to join the EU, Catalonia as an independent nation must be able to demonstrate they meet the Copenhagen Criteria which are defined as follows Political criteria: Stability of institutions guaranteeing democracy, the rule of law, human rights and respect for and protection of minorities; Economic criteria: A functioning market ...


25

The Good Friday Agreement, between the UK and Ireland provides for a non-violent route to the North of Ireland to become part of a united Ireland. It sets up conditions under which referendums must be held in both the North of Ireland and the Republic of Ireland (essentially, and if both approve then the British and Irish government have made a "binding" ...


20

The Crimean declaration of independence is to the benefit of Russia. The Kosovan declaration of independence is to the detriment of Russia's ally, Serbia. So Russia chooses to recognise the former, but not the latter. To recognise one, but not the other is not without hypocrisy, though the same accusation could be levelled at the EU for recognising Kosovo ...


18

First of all, Catalonians won't see that as legitimate. It's like having other people vote for what I should make myself for dinner -- even if everyone else is saying I should have salmon, if I want a hamburger and I'm the only vote in favour of it, I'm still making a damn hamburger. There is no legitimacy in other people telling me what I should do. Second,...


17

There are no "political differences" (v.g. right vs left, or in favor of more press freedom or less), in fact both the Catalonian new government and the opposition have both left and right wing parties. They want to stay in the EU, remain a democracy, etc. etc. In fact one of the "weapons" that the Madrid government holds is that it can block the admission ...


17

The question of secession was resolved as a practical matter by the American Civil War, and as a matter of law by the Supreme Court decision Texas v. White, in which it was ruled that states cannot unilaterally secede from the Union and did not do so during the Civil War. The court did leave open the possibility of secession "through consent of the States", ...


17

As you correctly state, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights asserts that Article 1 All peoples have the right of self-determination. By virtue of that right they freely determine their political status and freely pursue their economic, social and cultural development. However, it doesn't define peoples or self-...


17

The current vitality of independent movements is greatly exaggerated. You cannot assume that opinion polls and speaking about independence are the same thing as actually trying to get independence. Gaining independence is hard. There are a few countries, or regions, that are already de facto independent such as Transnistria or Kosovo, but do not have ...


16

There is no official mechanism for doing so. As there is no mechanism, President Abraham Lincoln justified his actions in attacking the Confederacy because they were still a part of a single country. There are occasionally claims that Texas can secede, because it was an independent state before joining the United States, but as this article states, there ...


15

To address your questions in order: It is constitutionally possible for the Westminster parliament to hold any referendum held by the Scottish parliament to be non-binding on itself and thus effectively worthless. Indeed, unless I'm misreading the Scotland Act 1998, Westminster could (in principle) abolish Holyrood at any time it chooses. As to whether it ...


15

The central government in Madrid regularly takes laws declared in Catalan parliament to court, arguing those laws can only be enacted nationally. In itself, such is just a conflict of sovereignty. However, there would be no conflict if the government in Madrid already had a law with the same effect, so this conflict of sovereignty implies that Madrid and ...


15

The customs considerations would be the same. There would have to be customs controls unless England joined the customs union. (Unless the EU somehow agreed to let Scotland join and remain outside the customs union, but that is unlikely indeed.) Newly-independent Scotland could presumably join the common travel area, so there would not need to be ...


15

Apart from the indirect but legal techniques of obstruction, there don't seem to be legal options. Obstruction The Scottish Parliament could pass all sorts of laws in the health, agriculture and justice departments, designed to frustrate the workings of the United Kingdom up to the point where Westminster might concede. This obstruction process would be ...


14

Adding an important caveat to what Ryathal said: The only thing that really matters is sovereignty over the land you claim as your country. International recognition is just something that helps maintain sovereignty...they might help you defend your claim. Declaring independence is somewhat of a formality, as it really only matters if you have the means ...


14

Small nations can be successful after independence. In the Mediterranean region, Malta is generally a successful nation. Cyprus has a unresolved issue with the Turkish North Cyprus, but one would not call Cyprus a "failed state". Around the world, former British colonies have had various levels of success. St Kitts and Nevis, Bahamas, and Barbados have a ...


13

First of all there is no etched-in-stone way to become a sovereign state. Some follow military ways e.g. Bangladesh seceding from Pakistan and becoming an independent country. Some follow political ways e.g. Pakistan and India carved out of united British India. There is no way to get the entire international community on board as interests of all states ...


13

It is not. The number of seats is disproportionate, but not the level of support. This is a consequence off the First Past the Post system. 2019 General Election: Party % share SNP Scottish National Party 45.0% CON Conservative 25.1% LAB Labour 18.6% LD Liberal Democrat 9.5% GRN Green ...


11

First of all, your offhanded "Aside from Scottish pride / nationalism" seems a little misguided. national pride/nationalism is pretty much one of the MAIN reasons most nations are independent instead of unified. Second, the main reasons given are economics, most specifically, hydrocarbon and renewable natural resources. A more full list of reasons can be ...


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