42

The reason for the first three increases in the size of the Supreme Court was related to the size of the country's boundaries growing. The decrease in 1866 was, reportedly, more an attempt by the Supreme Court to convince Congress to raise the salaries of the justices. When that failed, the number of justices returned to nearly where it was before. In ...


38

The other answers indicate that Trump has appointed an unusually large number of judges, but they don't quite get to how Trump was able to nominate so many more judges than previous presidents. Vox: What Trump has done to the courts, explained One reason is that the Senate under the final two years of Obama's term was controlled by Republicans, and under ...


32

The United Kingdom has 3 legal jurisdictions: England and Wales, Northern Ireland, and Scotland. Citizens are entitled to bring cases in their own jurisdiction, or any other by mutual agreement (particularly for civil cases). In fact, independent cases are being heard in all 3 jurisdictions. There is a single UK-wide Supreme Court which acts as the final ...


31

There's a key difference: In the Czech Republic, judges are appointed for life and cannot be revoked. Once appointed they can go rabid against the Executive and Legislative branches of government if the situation calls it. (EU countries all have a similarly independent Judiciary branch, whereby Judges cannot readily be dismissed nor can they have their ...


31

Federal grand jury testimony is kept secret due to grand juries operating under far less strict legal standards and proceedings than a typical jury trial, as their primary duty is not to convict an individual but to grant authority to the US Attorney General to pursue charges against an individual, as per the Fifth Amendment: No person shall be held to ...


28

What does it mean that North Carolina's maps were thrown out but new ones weren't ordered drawn? It means that until the legislature redraws the Congressional districts to satisfy the court's requirements, there will be delays in the 2020 elections for Congressional seats. This is a rather detailed article from the local newspaper, The News & Observer, ...


28

The size of the Supreme Court can be changed by passing a law The size of the Supreme Court is set by statute: Title 28 § 1 of the United States Code. Under the necessary and proper clause, Congress has the power to pass legislation about how "all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or ...


25

Yes it is unusual. Per this Vox article Trump has appointed 48 courts of appeal judges. Here is a comparison with other recent presidents at a similar point in their presidencies and their total number of appointments in parentheses: Trump: 48 Obama: 24 (55) Bush : 30 (62) Clinton: 27 (66) Bush Sr.: 31 (42) Reagan: 23 (83) ...


23

From the sheer size of that list, it wasn't drawn up from scratch in response to the attempted coup but long before. It's impossible to say if all of them have ties to political opponents of Erdogan or if they were simply marked "uncertain loyalty", but it would be astonishing if all those judges were somehow involved in such a small, clumsy and ...


22

I'm assuming this is most likely because of the time where something like this almost happened, namely the Judicial Procedures Reform Bill of 1937. The idea, as Wikipedia puts it, was the following: The Judicial Procedures Reform Bill of 19371 (frequently called the "court-packing plan")[2] was a legislative initiative proposed by U.S. President ...


21

I've heard a DA can choose to prosecute or not to prosecute people for virtually any reasons. The concept is called prosecutorial discretion. It is the authority of the district attorney for each district (and ultimately their attorney general) to choose whether or not to press charges in a case, offer a plea bargain or other alternate sentencing ...


17

The Westminster parliament is the parliament of the United Kingdom. Scotland is part of the United Kingdom. (The parliament of Scotland has authority over certain "devolved" matters only.) Any act of the Westminster parliament or of the UK government affecting Scotland must be lawful under the law of Scotland. This gives Scotland's courts ...


15

The judiciary is in charge of interpreting the law while the executive branch, through the Ministry of Justice, Justice Department, etc., is in charge of enforcing the law. The judiciary is mainly comprised of courts and the functions needed to operate them and does not investigate activities leading to litigation or litigate cases before the courts. For ...


15

The Supreme Court has been reduced in size twice in history. On both occasions, the reduction was done by attrition – that is, by not filling the next vacancy. The first instance was The Judiciary Act of 1801 (poetically known as the Midnight Judges Act) would have reduced the size of the Supreme Court from 6 to 5 Justices by not filling the next vacancy. ...


14

This argument is the other way round. The UK courts pride themselves on being as apolitical as possible. Because the government has been frustrated in its illegal course of action, they are proposing to pack the court with loyalists in order in revenge. They are proposing to make the court as explicitly political as the US system. An example of a similar ...


13

As there are few government data on the subject of police complaints, it is hard to come by a definite answer. However, FiveThiryEight.com examined several studies which found that around 40% of complaints against police officers resulted in legal action, and of those complaints that did result in legal action, 33% resulted in a conviction and 12% in an ...


13

Grand juries are used to determine if there is enough evidence to bring a case to trial. Even if they decide there is enough evidence to bring a case to trial, the State may not be able to prove that the accused committed a crime. We all (well, at least most people) agree that if a person is not found guilty then the State shouldn't punish them. If the ...


13

There's a lot of moving parts here to understand Roe v Wade changed the politics of the court No matter which side of the aisle you're on Roe v. Wade still looms large in any SCOTUS appointment. Ginsburg's death reiterates that If Trump is able to install his nominee in that seat, both sides agree there’s a better chance than ever that Roe v. Wade — the ...


12

This ruling is a preliminary injunction, not a final ruling on the case. In other words, the judges' ruling prevents North Carolina from using the maps to hold elections, but is not a ruling throwing them out (which cannot happen without a trial). From AP news The panel of three Superior Court judges issued a preliminary injunction preventing elections ...


12

A better comparison rather than making estimates about retirements would be looking at how many judges recent presidents appointed. According to wikipedia this seems to be 347 for Obama, and 335 for Bush. The letter you're referencing is dated at 12/07/19, so we can say it's 170 judges over 2.91 years, compared to 347 or 335 over 8 years. This would be 58....


11

According to this answer, only Congress and the Supreme Court can overturn an Executive Order reads answer OK, that's actually a moderately oversimplified and confused answer. The Supreme Court's authority is derived from Article Three of the Constitution (capitalization in original): The judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested in one supreme ...


11

Sheikh Mohammed sued his wife for custody of his children, while both she and the children were in the UK. Naturally, the UK has jurisdiction. Princess Haya made various allegations in response (kidnapping, torture), which would plainly be criminal behaviour, if true. Sheikh Mohammed would have immunity from criminal charges relating to these but the court ...


10

Those released by the United States as part of the Exchange between Iran and the United States are Nader Modanlo, Bahram Mechanic, Khosrow Afghahi, Tooraj Faridi, Arash Ghahreman, Nima Golestaneh and Ali Saboonchi. (NY Times) All of these prisoners had broken United States Law and not Iranian Law so, even if an extradition treaty between the US and Iran ...


10

Turkey has seen a rapid political change in the last decade, it has transitioned from a system where secularism was constitutionally mandated in which the current government would not have been allowed to govern. The military used to have the right to intervene in the political system. In 1997, the military removed the Turkish government from power, but ...


10

Technically speaking, a Supreme Court justice does not have any required qualifications whatsoever in the constitution. That said, I don't believe that anyone has ever been appointed to the Supreme Court who was not already a lawyer. Most have previous experience as a judge, although Elena Kagan is a current example of an exception. Prior to Kagan, the ...


10

The court has no power over Parliament. The principle of "Parliamentary Privilege" is well established, and there have be a number of high profile cases in which Judges have ruled that they can take no action against some alleged wrong (such a libel or breaking an injunction) because the wrong occurred in Parliament. Moreover there is no Judicial review of ...


10

Is the Court really suggesting that the entirety of Congress has to agree that a basic and black-and-white crime like Emoluments occurred before anything can be done about it? If not, who does have standing? Not the entirety. A majority of either house of Congress could pass a resolution authorizing a suit; but it must be the institution and not its members....


10

The recent High Court judgement on the case in question can be found here, where it has decided that the fact finding judgement decided upon in December 2019 should be made public. In particular, it should be noted that this is not a criminal trial, but proceedings in family court, which has led to a so-called Fact Finding Judgement (FFJ). These take place ...


9

Because some people value elections over impartiality. Note that in the federal system, no judge is elected. Judges are appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate. In states, judges may be appointed in similar fashion or elected. Appointments have the advantage of greater impartiality but can leave judges out of touch. Also, without a way ...


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