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88

The premise in your question, about Muslims preferring Europe over rich Middle-Eastern countries, is false. In fact, Syrian refugees prefer neighbouring Middle-Eastern countries over rich ones. More than 6 million Syrians are internally displaced within their own country, accounting for about half (49%) of all displaced Syrians worldwide. More than ...


57

The US public opinion is highly sensitive to casualties among US troops. They are much less concerned about casualties to contractors, especially if they are not US citizens. At times the US government has more money than available troops. At times deploying contractors is easier under domestic US law. Legal oversight is mostly designed with the official ...


50

History and Politics rarely accommodate with clear binary outcome. So, as much I would not say that the Arab Spring revolutions weren't a failure as a whole, I would also not say that the European ones were fully a success. The European/American revolutions were not fully successful... A revolution usually stem from a group of people unhappy about the ...


47

The reason is the same for any country, not just the US. And it is rarely money. It can be roughly grouped like this: public opinion damage control: the population of a country cares about the death of their military personnel. This is especially true for the military conflict with no clear goal for a population (whom are we saving in the conflict in X?). ...


47

Implicit in your question is the assumption that Muslims should have some kind of kindred sympathy toward their Muslim brethren in other countries. We have to dispense with that kind of thinking; it's not really true of any race, culture, or religion anywhere in the world. Western Europeans dislike immigration from eastern European countries (in fact, EU ...


34

In all likelihood, the disbursement of the funds to the Palestinians happened when it did because of politics. Many Democrats and Republicans hold Israel's status in the region as sacrosanct, regardless of what they do, and doing so at the last minute of his term and at the beginning of someone else's doesn't leave much time for others to really critisize ...


31

Basically, it's related to the US abstinent on UN Vote on Israeli Settlements (United Nations Security Council 2334). As quoted, then Secretary of State John Kerry said on the reason for abstaining: “The status quo is leading toward one state and perpetual occupation,” Kerry warned. “The Israeli prime minister publicly supports a two-state solution, but ...


27

There were apparently no laws for asylum seekers in any Gulf countries until autumn 2018. Qatar: Gulf’s First Refugee Asylum Law [...] Qatar passed Law No. 11/2018 on Organizing Political Asylum on September 4, 2018, alongside two other laws regulating residency in the country. One abolished exit permits for most migrant workers, and the other ...


25

If anything it is the other way round. The key political difference between Sunni and Shia Islam is the status of the family of the prophet. In Shia Islam, God chose Ali, who was Muhammad's cousin and son-in-law, and Muhammad's closest blood relative as the leader of Muslims after Muhammad. The leaders of Shia Islam claim a direct bloodline to Ali. In ...


25

This is both a pretty broad question and the answers (even from experts) are going to be opinion based to a good extent, so my answer is going to be a rather trite listicle of reasons that have been offered: Ethnic and religious divisions (including sectarian ones within Islam), plus a dominance/intolerance aspect thereof. E.g. one 2005 study found using a ...


24

Most Muslim countries are governed by authoritarian regimes. An authoritarian regime usually outlaws any organizations which threaten their authority. Most Western countries, on the other hand, are democracies. Freedom of speech and freedom of association are considered important values in democracies. That usually means that political organizations are ...


23

Here are a couple easy ones. Iraq occurred first, and the war in Iraq turned out to be, at the very least, quite unpopular. When the situation in Syria came up, many people were fed up with the idea of war and nation-building because of how Iraq went down. People didn't want Syria to turn into another Iraq. Russia supports Assad's government, and unlike ...


21

Because trying to redraw the border would just start the next round of wars. Most ethnic groups overlap their neighbors -- especially when countries have large capitals or ports that attract people from all over the country. And even where ethnic groups have well-defined limits to the area they currently occupy, they often remember ancient times when they ...


21

Simple reason: precedent. If USA supports such a border rewrite, what's left for it to do when Mexicans in South-West decide to secede (or, in a less likely scenario, The South Rises Again :)? If Russia supports such a border rewrite, what's left for it to do when Chechnya, or Yakutia, or Tatarstan decide to secede? If China supports such a border ...


21

Revolutions tend to fail rather often. Depending on your idea of what a success is, you could even say that no revolution ever achieved its goals in full - it's kind of hard when most revolutions were spearheaded by multiple groups with conflicting interests in the first place, and this applies to Arab Spring as easily as it does to the French Revolution. "...


20

Democracy is hard to quantify, so I am trying an argument from authority and base my answers on the assessments of an organization which knows far more about politics and did far more research than me. The Economist Intelligence Unit is a think tank which compiles an annual democracy index where they assign a democracy rating to each country. Factors ...


18

First, let's get some insider information from the man on the ground: I live in Algeria, a North African country. I don't know about the Middle East, but there's no North African islamic government. Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt; none of these are Islamic. Some of these have dealt with problems, some are dealing with problems as I write these ...


18

I found this comment to be insightful But the House of Saud always had an almost literal killer counterargument, that they were probably better than any regime that would replace them. Often the world of foreign policy gives you no good options, just lots of variously bad ones. Accepting the Saudis’ help where they offered, and trying to gently nudge them ...


17

There are several rich "Muslim" states in Middle East: Kuwait, Qatar, UAE, Bahrain and so on. It seems that none of them want to receive Syrian, Iraqi, North African and other Muslim refugees. Muslim refugees mostly do not go to rich Middle Eastern countries because they are going to middle-income or poor ones. Lebanon is very nearby, and arguably has a ...


15

I would argue that the reason is less political and more about geography and economics. As this study shows, access to low-cost fossil fuels is in fact cheaper than nuclear. This page shows the cost of fossil fuels to be reasonable, whereas nuclear has a high capitalization that must be amortized in some fashion. Saudi Arabia, for example, has the world'...


15

The European Union has created something called “subsidiary protection” for people in this situation. As far as I know, that's specific to the EU and isn't used elsewhere or in international law generally. Also, Syrians might not exactly fit the definition under a strict reading of the Convention relating to the Status of Refugees (where your definition ...


15

As Geobits said, It's generally accepted that Pakistan has had nuclear weapons for over 20 years. The problem with Iran is that their statements to the effect of "We're going to destroy Israel" are well-documented. Pakistan, on the other hand, isn't friendly but isn't overtly hostile. Moreover, their record on this is pretty good- when have you heard of ...


14

When answering this question, it's useful to clarify a few things. First, it's important to clarify what we mean by a "settlement". As you learned in the comments, there are settlements and settlement outposts. Settlement outposts are considered illegal under Israeli law, and are established without the explicit permission of the Israeli government. They ...


12

The most important flaw in the premise is that Western invention had a significant impact on the "Arab Spring". This is not the case. The civil war in Syria was neither started nor mainly influenced by the West. Military actions mostly focused on the Islamic State, and this only after it emerged several years after the beginning of the civil war. Other ...


12

Any answer will be a bit speculative, because causation is very hard to prove. Changes in Iran's security and foreign policy since Trump repealed the nuclear deal include the following points: Iran restarted its nuclear military program, breaching a cap set in the nuclear Deal for the first time in July 2019 when it enriched uranium to 4.5%. Tensions ...


10

Are you asking about officially recognized parties, or actually existing (with or without recognition?) Wikipedia has a list of Saudi political parties that exist in reality. However, none of those parties are officially recognized under the Kingdom's law, and are officially prohibited (reference: Marshall Cavendish. "World and Its Peoples: the Arabian ...


10

Sharia law is not a single well-defined body of rules. It's a set of traditions, with several major schools of jurisprudence. Even if strongly religious people might themselves want to deny that (i.e. argue that their particular interpretation is the one true law created by God and not an “interpretation” at all), it's actually quite diverse and flexible. ...


10

There is a significant backlash in the USA about the removal of Saddam Hussein. Note that of the last five major USA presidential candidates (Hillary Clinton; Donald Trump; Bernie Sanders; Ted Cruz; John Kasich), none now claims that removing Hussein was correct. Hillary Clinton is the closest, having voted in favor of the war resolution that lead to his ...


10

Short Answer Modern terrorism as we understand it today originated in the late 1960s and has gradually spread across different movements as a tactic, including Islamic terrorism movements, since then. The rise of this tactic in the Middle East more or less coincided with its appearance in places like Ireland, Continental Europe and Sri Lanka by non-...


10

The US does not identify any of its ally states (at government level) as state sponsors of terrorism. Iraq for example was removed in 2004, following the US invasion. The current US list of state sponsors of terrorism is actually pretty short (as of 2017): besides Iran, only North Korea, Sudan and Syria (Assad's regime) are on it. The official reports don't ...


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