51

What is the purpose of democracy? It's more a philosophical question than a political question but let me try a brief answer: First, it's a reasoning bias to imagine that things always exist for a specific "purpose". Things exist for various reasons (historical, cultural, ...) which are not always optimal or even logical, let alone "virtuous". Whether ...


36

There is a lot of confusion regarding the French Gendarmerie, fueled by descriptions like “military police” or “military force with law enforcement duty” which are technically correct but do not fully reflect the nature and tactics of the force. Its members are indeed military officers, which has some legal consequences (trade unions are strictly forbidden, ...


24

What is the alternative? The idea that a cadre party knows the volonte generale better than the stupid masses whom they claim to represent has been debunked. Same for the concept of enlightened absolutism and many other things in between. A good democracy is not just a tyranny of the majority. It contains checks and balances to protect significant minority ...


17

New Zealand Background: Police in New Zealand do not typically carry firearms on their person, despite a longstanding stated desire from the police association to do so. Since 2012 pistols and semi-automatic rifles are stored in lock boxes in patrol cars, which may be accessed at the officer's discretion, but they must advise their command if they are going ...


16

Democracy can be lots of things, depending of what you are interesting in: A way of legitimating the government. One of the most basic problem of politics is why the people should obey their rulers. If it is by force alone, then any actor that amasses some military power may try to create a new government and cause a war in doing so. And at the same time ...


15

They have not, for two reasons. One, because China has gone out of their way to court Muslim-majority nations to show them how their Uighur re-education camps aren't as bad as Western nations say. They brought in Indonesian authorities to show them around, but still, authorities there are wary. Kazakhstan was convinced the Uighur were terrorists that had ...


13

A (currently WIP) study entitled Militarization and Perceptions of Law Enforcement in the Developing World: Evidence from a Conjoint Experiment in Mexico by Flores-Macías, G., & Zarkin, J. looks at this factor in Mexico. This study uses data from an image-based conjoint experiment in a nationally representative survey, in which respondents were presented ...


11

It depends what one means by democracy. The past couple of decades have seen the rise of illiberal democracy, in which the majoritarian mechanisms are more or less preserved, but there is a degradation of minority rights, separation of powers and so forth. To quote one of the opening paragraphs of the 1997 article by Frank Zakaria, which popularised this [...


10

Speaking as a reasonably politically engaged Brit, I can safely say that the main reason that there isn't much interest from the UK is that most people wouldn't have heard of this initiative. I would conjecture this is for two reasons. Firstly, and I appreciate it's important to you but, the UK's engagement is somewhat dominated by Brexit currently, so ...


7

These amendments were put forward by Janine Boyd. On the website of the Ohio House of Representatives there is a press release in which she elaborates those particular amendments a bit more, writing: Exemption for African-American women, whose history includes rape and forced birth imposed on enslaved women and black women after slavery. I am not going ...


7

At least in one 2014 Pew poll the answer seems to be that Muslims are more negatively viewed in France than Jews. By the way, publishing the results of such polls in France (especially when they get to detailed questions) is not terribly popular. It's actually hard to find some detail questions that were comparable in that latter poll (as it focused on ...


6

It can certainly be considered as xenophobia by some - one prior example that springs to mind is in 2009 when David Cameron, then Leader of the UK Opposition, adopted a German accent to mock the Labour party's planned initiative to introduce national identity cards: In a mock voice apparently attempting to mimic a Nazi officer, Cameron asked an audience in ...


6

On first glance, this package (never heard of it before) seems to support European minorities only. For instance, they gave the example of Bretons. In my opinion, the diversity and multiculturalism publicly professed by Western European countries mainly extend to non-European minorities. As a German, for me the word "multiculturalism" evokes non-Europeanness....


5

According to Parliament.uk figures, there are 122 constituencies with a double-digit Asian electorate, from Leicester East at 58% down to Solihull at just over 10% - these are shown below. Wave 10 of the British Electoral Study, conducted in the autumn of 2016, collected data on ethnicity, constituency & referendum vote, allowing us to draw some ...


5

This is a Romanian perspective I think there is no actual connection between backing Klaus Iohannis and notifying the Constitutional Court about the Roman Catholic Theological High School in Târgu Mureş. Backing Klaus Iohannis is very good for the party because he is a very popular politician who proved his efficiency as a mayor in Sibiu and has clear pro-...


5

I have no idea what use this information is, but I was interested in whether I could find the data to answer it, so I gave it a shot. Using the vote data from this dataset about the 2016 election and this list of counties with majority minority populations (from 2018), I wrote a bit of code to compare and report. Based on my numbers, of which I've done ...


5

Carabinieri in Italy are a military police force, but they are basically indistinguishable from the police (they have essentially the same tasks). I would bet that many Italians don't even know that they are technically a part of the army. A recent poll (January 2020) measured 'trust' in various Italian police forces. Polizia di Stato (civil police): 69% (-...


5

There are a couple major issues with this: Members of a volunteer police force still need money to live. Fortunately for them, police work allows for "ethically questionable sponsorship opportunities". One of the issues with some US police forces is lack of training for the wide range of situations they are asked to deal with. It's unlikely that a ...


4

Of course those "at the receiving end" of such speech will almost often consider it such. A more recent example of written speech, but which was assumed to capture a certain [ethnic/foreign] pronunciation: In the latest incident to strain ties between Brasilia and Beijing, Education Minister Abraham Weintraub insinuated China was behind the global ...


4

Per Wikipedia: US Ambassadors are sourced from one of two avenues: Either they are Career Foreign Service Officers (or Career Diplomat or CD) or Political Appointees (PA). In the former case, they typically serve a 3 year tour of duty. The latter serve until the inaugeration of the new President, at which point they resign. PAs are typically made a good ...


4

Turkey claims Uighurs in China as ethnic Turks. In 2015 "Ankara summoned the Chinese ambassador... over reports that Beijing had banned Uighurs from fasting and worship during the holy month." In February 2019 Turkey's Ministry of Foreign Affairs issued a statement condemning the violations of "the fundamental human rights of Uighur Turks and ...


4

The following countries has officially expressed support to China's position: Algeria, Angola, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Belarus, the Plurinational State of Bolivia, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Comoros, the Congo, Cuba, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, ...


4

The Palestinians in Kuwait were very much assimilated into Kuwaiti society pre-1990 becoming a settled part of Kuwait society rather than a migrant workforce. Their situation in Kuwait was seen as more settled than elsewhere in the Middle East and they occupied many high-status professions, government jobs etc. As is typical in the region, settling there and ...


4

According to LSE analysis, the Asian "concentrations" (as opposed to minorities more generally) voting pattern was actually rather consistent for Leave, across the UK: Outside London, nearly every constituency with a double-digit South Asian population voted Leave. Luton has a 25 percent Asian population; Leave won there with a 19 percent majority....


4

Unclear This question should be answered by citing international studies on public trust in police institutions with a focus on militarization. Alas, a cursory search did not reveal any such studies. I have found, however, some information that may hint at an answer. Police militarization The study OP linked in their question defines police militarization as ...


3

Indeed it is rather find the list of foreign languages spoken by the current Romanian PM, Ludovic Orban. This article tells about Ludovic Orban reciting a Hungarian poem before beginning the negotiations with the main Hungarian party in Romania (translated from Romanian): Ludovic Orban wanted to recite a poem in Hungarian. The PNL leader later ...


3

I am answering this from the Hungarian viewpoint, so I may be biased. I think the main reason is that the number of ethnic Germans in Transylvania has dropped very low. Many of them were "sold" to Germany in the Ceausescu era, and others left during the 90ies. Their ratio is below 1% in the country now, so they are now not in a position to demand significant ...


3

I think the answer is no. In my opinion an assimilated person is in some sense "equal" to a native person. This view implies that a necessary (but not sufficient) condition for assimilation is that the assimilated is granted citizenship. If the law doesn't consider someone an equal, his or her peers won't consider him or her one either. By and large, the ...


3

The basic idea of democracy is that those who are governed have a say in how they are being governed. This sets it apart from aristocracy, monarchy, tyranny and other forms of governance in which a small group of leaders decides and may or may not care about the wishes of the people, but in any case does so without the people having a direct influence on ...


3

The primary purpose of Democracy is to avoid a physical fight and instead settle differences with votes on how society will be governed. It is the most natural form of government on settling disputes on how society should be governed. Pre-Democratic societies where power resided in one person or an elite group provide evidence that Democracy will inevitably ...


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