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Another benefit of being a member of a political party rather than running as an Independent is that you become eligible for 'Short Money' - funding provided to opposition parties to support them in their parliamentary duties. These funds are only available to "all opposition parties in the House of Commons that secured either two seats, or one seat and ...


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The House of Commons has published a Briefing Paper which contains a list of confidence motions since 1945. The most recent of these confidence motions in which an MP voted against their own party's government, as far as I'm aware, occurred on February 17th 1972, in opposition to the European Communities Bill. During the debate, then Prime Minister, Ted ...


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I've approached this question by looking at the General Election before each party leader attained their post, for Westminster party leaders of the Lib Dem, Labour, & Conservative parties selected since the 1992 GE. I then look at the distribution of 'percentage majority' among MPs of the same party, and find the percentile in which the leader appeared. ...


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https://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/turkish-parliament-passes-penal-reform-law-153838 The bill, introduced by the ruling Justice and Development Party (AKP) and Nationalist Movement Party (MHP), was supported by 279 lawmakers in the 600-seat chamber while 51 voted against it. There you go. Considering the passing of this bill, it seems to me that the AKP ...


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The Archbishop of Canterbury and the Archbishop of York as well as the Bishops of London, Durham and Winchester are ex officio members of the House of Lords while the remaining 21 seats are filled (mostly) in order of seniority among the 35 eligible diocesan bishops (there are 37 but neither the Bishop of Sodor and Man nor the Bishop of Gibraltar and Europe ...


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A lot of it comes down to trust, goodwill and respect for the democratic norm. I'll focus this answer mostly on the UK, since that is the system I'm most familier with: "Could the Head of State hijack the government formation process" Not if she wants to remain head of state. Its been quipped that the Queen gets a veto, but she get exactly one veto. ...


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In the United Kingdom, there is a de facto vote of confidence after a general election. When a new session of Parliament begins, the government is expected to prepare a Queen's Speech, outlining its priorities for the upcoming session, and the House of Commons will then vote on whether or not they approve of the contents of the Speech. If the contents of ...


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I've finally got round to finding more data on this. Gordon Brown became Prime Minister on 27 June 2007, and faced the committee for the first time on December 13th of the same year. David Cameron became Prime Minister on May 11th 2010 and appeared on November 18th. Finally, Theresa May took over from Cameron on July 13th 2016, and met the committee on ...


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