46

George Orwell in 'Notes on Nationalism' said it best I think, By ‘nationalism’ I mean first of all the habit of assuming that human beings can be classified like insects and that whole blocks of millions or tens of millions of people can be confidently labelled ‘good’ or ‘bad’. But secondly — and this is much more important — I mean the habit of ...


40

Has this ever happened before, that a standing Member of Congress switched parties directly from one major party to the other? If so, when? The number of party switchers is too numerous to list here. The names and dates are provided in the links. List of United States Representatives who switched parties, includes the reference to Jeff Van Drew. List of ...


34

Another source states: In all, the House of Representatives has impeached only 19 federal officials, and the Senate has conducted formal impeachment trials with seven acquittals, eight convictions, three dismissals and one resignation (Nixon’s) with no further action. This is inaccurate as Nixon was never impeached in the first place. He resigned ...


34

Nationalism: I should do what is best for my country even at the cost of other countries. Nationalists sacrifice others. Nationalists also tend to believe in a zero-sum world. In order for their situation to improve, that of someone else must worsen. Patriotism: I should do what is best for my country even at the cost of myself. Patriots sacrifice ...


26

This has happened a few times before, and is usually a rather extreme measure used to promote the use of, and trust in, local currency, as opposed to transactions being conducted using a more stable foreign currency, most often USD. Indonesia In 2011, Indonesia banned foreign currencies being used in domestic cash transactions: On 28 June 2011, the ...


17

Below is a summary of some key differences, based on the Nationalism and Patriotism articles on the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. I'll use examples from American politics for my own convenience. Nation/State Distinction One of the classical distinctions is the difference between the nation and state. The nation is a primordial ethnic or social ...


17

Currency controls or foreign exchange controls have happened time and again in history, taking different forms. At the extreme end, all foreign currency must be surrendered to the government at the official exchange rate, which might differ from the market rate. The GDR banned the possession of Western currency until the 1970s. I'm not sure when the Soviet ...


16

Soviet Union In USSR, any dealings with foreign currency without a special permit (in essence, allowing exporters to get paid in currency and immediately trade them for roubles at the central bank and allowing outgoing travelers to get some currency for expenses, with any remainder to be traded back upon return) was a crime. (see RSSR Criminal Code article ...


14

One example I immediately came up with: the Sejm of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth elected the King of Poland (and the Grand Duke of Lithuania), where any European noble is a potential candidate. The Sejm represented the Polish nobility, which I saw sources attributing that around 8% over 10% (around 13-15%) of all Poles and Lithuanians were a member of. ...


14

Although, according to this article by Christopher Klein, the term 'grand old party' was used to refer to the Democratic party in 1859 by Democratic Governor Beriah Magoffin, and later, in 1860, by a Democratic newspaper, the 'GOP' acronym only appears to have been applied on a large scale to the Republican party. The original term which associated 'GOP' ...


13

FiveThirtyEight has an article and a chart that shows congressional resignations from March 1901 through January 2018. The list of congressional resignations in the above chart does not include those from January 2018 onwards. For a complete list of resignations that occurred during the 115th Congress (2017–2018), see Ballotpedia’s list. There’s also a CSV ...


13

Aristotle explains this himself in Book III of Politics. Aristotle's philosophy is a rich in complexity and detail, so this will be a synopsis. I highly recommend buying an annotated copy with lots of discussion. Preferably in a conventional style of English, not one of those terrible academic versions. What is a citizen? First, what is a citizen? He ...


12

Argentina There is even a wiki article on it, Argentina currency controls (2011-15): Those controls limited the ability to buy or sell any foreign currency. The restriction was informally known in Argentina as "Cepo cambiario" (Spanish: exchange clamp). The first restrictions were imposed on October 31, 2011. The Tax and Customs Authority, AFIP, ...


12

Technically speaking, I suppose the counterpoint to 'reactionary' would be 'revolutionary'. The term 'reactionary' refers to elements of conservative movements who are not merely concerned with preserving social, political, and economic traditions and institutions, but who actively try to (re)assert defunct, discarded, or sometimes even imaginary traditions ...


11

This quote is actually misattributed to Rand - in fact, it was written by Leonard Peikoff in 2008 in the introduction to a new edition of We the Living. He wrote: The basic cause of totalitarianism is two ideas: men’s rejection of reason in favor of faith, and of self-interest in favor of self-sacrifice. If this is a society’s philosophical consensus, it ...


9

The main reason is that there is a two-year timeframe for negotiations to take place once Article 50 is invoked. Theresa May's government's was just formed 3 months ago and is thus still preparing for negotiations. The negotiations are crucial to reach an agreeable deal between the UK and the EU. The government needs time to plan out the negotiations and ...


8

Huxley lays out four terms: over population under development communist party (not communism) totalitarian We must also add your term: communism All these terms are politically charged. Their meanings are debated, and the debate has been around advancing current political conflicts. How can communism be totalitarian? Communist parties, being in ...


8

No. I spent a lot of time in political theory courses, including some time spent with original Greek texts. However, never once did I hear of anything called a "cryptarchy" or any philosopher espousing a kind of secret government. Personal observation is weak, so here are a few other things to consider: Google NGram Viewer can search Google Books for ...


8

The list here seems pretty complete. Most, if not all of the countries are either socialists or socialist "sympathizers". The outliers in the trend seem to be Russia, India and Ukraine, although I'm not sure about India.


8

Romania before 1989 In Ceaşescu's Romania, it was illegal to possess foreign currency (Romanian): Possession of foreign currency was forbidden, the few Romanians who had legally entered into its possession could use it exclusively for the purchase of goods from the network of specialized state stores ("Comturist" shops). The regime's appetite for ...


7

That's a very complicated question, but an obvious reading is to say it has a lot to do with class. If you come from a wealthy, "old-money" family - you can rest assured than when you come to want a job, your parents or any number of their friends are going to have well-paid positions waiting for you. So after an incredibly expensive private education, ...


7

This is common enough that there's even jargon for it - "Crossing the floor" - in the UK system, where changing from government and opposition parties sit in different places in the chamber. This is historically pretty rare, but due to the situation triggered by Brexit, happened many times in the 2017-2019 parliament. Including 11 MPs leaving their parties ...


7

While Change UK may have been the highest profile party to have lasted not very long at all, it's not alone in this regard. The Trust Party was founded just a few weeks before the 2010 election, in the wake of the Parliamentary Expenses Scandal. While I cannot find an exact date of dissolution for this party, it was reportedly dissolved not long after the ...


6

I see nothing so romantic. Moldova became separated from Romania as a result of land deals between the Ottoman and Russian Empires, and later between the Communist governments of Romania and the Soviet Union. During Soviet Control, quite large Slavic populations built up, especially in Transnistria (which had never been part of Romania), and many Russians ...


6

The Anti-Masonic political movement (based upon my knowledge of its history while working with primary sources related to the history of my undergraduate college was founded by people who belonged to it), was afraid of a secret oligarchy by a self-selected elite whose religious proclivities (cryto-Egyptian rituals and ecumenical religious tolerance that ...


6

More of an history question than a political one, but here it is: Amadeo I of Spain was elected as King (of Spain, hardly surprising) after the previous Queen, Isabelle II, was exiled from the country. Amadeo was chosen by the Cortes (the Spanish Parliament of the time); other candidates were Isabelle II son, Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg and Prince Leopold of ...


6

First of all, in USSR there was never such a position as "party leader". Moreover, Lenin was "Chairman of Council of People's Commissars"; Stalin was "General Secretary of Central Comittee"; and Khrushev was "First Secretary of Central Comittee". In 1964 Brezhnev got the position of "First Secretary", and reformed it into "General Secretary" only in 1966. ...


5

What you should study depends on which issues are important to you. Each issue involves different groups of people. These groups of people remember (with varying degrees of distortion) certain actions by other groups of people involved in these issues. These groups of people also (more-or-less) follow doctrines, which were shaped by historical people and ...


5

The Daily Times published an opinion piece which recounted the story: The 1973 Constitution was amended in 1974 to declare an entire sect as being outside Islam, this sect being the Ahmedis. From 1937 to 1944, the pro-Congress Majlis-e-Ahrar-ul-Islam and other religious groups constantly pressurised Jinnah to declare Ahmedis as non-Muslims and throw them ...


4

One element which uniformed military services, the PHS Commissioned Corps, and the NOAA Commissioned Corps have in common which distinguishes them from civilian positions in government is that uniformed services put people who are members of them in situations in which the members of the corps are not permitted to quit once they have enrolled, until their ...


Only top voted, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible